The Cellular Level of Organization Basic, living, structural
The Cellular Level of Organization Basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body compartmentalization of chemical reactions within specialized structures regulate inflow & outflow of materials use genetic material to direct cell activities Generalized Cell Structures Plasma membrane = cell membrane Nucleus = genetic material of cell
Cytoplasm = everything between the membrane and the nucleus cytosol = intracellular fluid organelles = subcellular structures with specific functions The Typical Cell Not all cells contain all of these organelles. Plasma Membrane
Flexible but sturdy barrier that surround cytoplasm of cell Fluid mosaic model describes its structure sea of lipids in which proteins float like icebergs membrane is 50 % lipid & 50 % protein held together by hydrogen bonds lipid is barrier to entry or exit of polar substances proteins are gatekeepers -- regulate traffic 3-4
Lipid Bilayer of the Cell Membrane Phospholipid bilayer Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments throughout the cytosol Functions cell support and shape
organization of chemical reactions cell & organelle movement Continually reorganized 3-6 Ribosomes Packages of Ribosomal RNA & protein
Free ribosomes are loose in cytosol synthesize proteins found inside the cell Membrane-bound ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear membrane synthesize proteins needed for plasma membrane or for export 10 to 20 together form a polyribosome Inside mitochondria, synthesize mitochondrial
proteins 3-7 Ribosomal Subunits Large + small subunits made in the nucleolus assembled in the cytoplasm 3-8
Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of membranes forming flattened sacs or tubules called cisterns half of membranous surfaces within cytoplasm Rough ER continuous with nuclear envelope & covered with attached ribosomes synthesizes, processes & packages proteins for export free ribosomes synthesize proteins for local use
Smooth ER -- no attached ribosomes synthesizes phospholipids, steroids and fats detoxifies harmful substances (alcohol) 3-9 Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER is covered with
fixed ribosomes. 3-10 Golgi Complex 3-20 flattened, curved membranous sacs called cisterns Convex side faces ER & concave side faces cell membrane
Processes & packages proteins produced by rough ER 3-11 Packaging by Golgi Complex
Proteins pass from rough ER to golgi complex in transport vesicles Processed proteins pass from entry cistern to medial cistern to exit cistern in transfer vesicle 3-12 Finished proteins exit golgi as secretory, membrane or storage vesicle (lysosome) Lysosomes Membranous vesicles formed in Golgi complex filled with digestive enzymes
pumps in H+ ions until internal pH reaches 5.0 Functions digest foreign substances autophagy(autophagosome forms) recycles own organelles autolysis lysosomal damage after death 3-13
Mitochondria Double membrane organelle central cavity known as matrix inner membrane folds known as crista surface area for chemical reactions of cellular respiration Function generation of ATP
powerhouse of cell Mitochondria self-replicate increases with need for ATP circular DNA with 37 genes only inherited from mother 3-14 Nucleus Large organelle with double membrane nuclear envelope
outer membrane continuous with rough ER perforated by water-filled nuclear pores (10X channel pore size) Nucleolus spherical, dark bodies within the nucleus (no membrane) site of ribosome assembly 3-15 Function of Nucleus 46 human DNA molecules or chromosomes genes found on chromosomes
gene is directions for a specific protein DNA Structure DNA-----DNA A-----T G---C 3-17
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