INCDM PRESENT STATE AND EVOLUTION TRENDS OF BIOLOGICAL
INCDM PRESENT STATE AND EVOLUTION TRENDS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE BLACK SEA: DECLINE AND RESTORATION ASPECTS Alexandru S. Bologa Institutul National Grigore Antipa Constanta INCDM CONTENT 1. THE BLACK SEA BASIN 2. THE BLACK SEA COASTAL STATES 3. THE BLACK SEA UNICUM HYDROBIOLOGICUM
4. THE BLACK SEA (No.62 LME) 5. MACROPHYTOBENTHOS 6. ZOOBENTHOS 7. PHYTOPLANKTON 8. ZOOPLANKTON 9. LIVING RESOURCES 10. CETACEANS 11. BIODIVERSITY CHANGES / CONCLUSIONS 12. BLACK SEA COOPERATION 13. SELECTED BLACK SEA REFERENCES 14. OTHER JOINT BLACK SEA OUTPUTS 15. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS INCDM INCDM
The Black Sea and its coastal states THE BLACK SEA INCDM "unicum hydrobiologicum" ... the Black Sea, because of entirely different conditions from those prevailing in other seas, represents a real natural laboratory ... Nikolay M. Knipovich (1862 - 1939)
Grigore Antipa (1867 - 1944) "The problems of the Black Sea are not so different as elsewhere, but they are more obvious, in part of isolated, contained nature of the Black Sea" Dr. Jane Lubchenko, 1998 INCDM THE BLACK SEA (No. 62 on LMEs map of World and Linked Watersheds) most endangered semi-enclosed continental sea (GEF, 1992) dramatic environmental changes !
- coastal erosion - pollution / eutrophication - decline of biodiversity - loss of living resources - degradation of landscapes severe ecological disequilibrium ! * - chemical / oil, micro- & biological pollution (harmful ?) exotic species INCDM MACROPHYTOBENTHOS good indicator of state of eutrophication bioindicators for chemical and radioactive pollution
331 species 80 Chlorophyta 76 Phaeophyta 169 Rhodophyta 6 seegrasses (Phanerogama / Magnoliphyta) domination of small-size species with fast growth rate decrease of species number and community biomass increase of Chlorophyta and decrease of Phaeophyta massive disappearance of perennial Cystoseira species on Black Sea shelf due to intense eutrophication in 70s, but possible restoration (e.g. Danube Dneper interfluves, Romanian southern coast) decline of Phyllophora species in Zernovs field replacement with tolerant eutrophic species of Enteromorpha, Cladophora, Ceramium INCDM
development of other species (e.g. Desmarestia viridis, Polysiphonia sanguinea, Pylaiella littoralis) in Ukrainian and Romanian coastal waters (90s) morphological and ecological changes of macrophytes under prolonged influence of eutrophication (different branching of Cystoseira and Gelidiella, 2 shallow-water forms of Phyllophora nervosa) occasional macroalgal blooms dominated by opportunistic species (e.g. Romanian shore 25.000 t / 2008) sensitivity to climatic changes (domination of either winter or summer species) improvement of ecological state (i.a. some restoration of Cystoseira barbata, seaweed distribution in deep waters) INCDM ZOOBENTHOS most conservative bioindicator for ecosystem structural and functional changes
and related ecological health e.g. almost 800 taxa in Romanian coastal waters (1960-1970) NW Black Sea sector poorer as fauna and nourishing places for ecological valuable fish species compared to 60s drastic decrease of specific diversity, abundance and biomass simplified community structure dominance of smaller-size hypoxia tolerant groups and opportunistic species reduction of biofilter strength of ecosystem qualitative and quantitative worsening of benthic resources (especially mollusks) INCDM crustaceans most sensitive to oxygen deficiency, polychetes less sensitive, bivalves most tolerant even so significant changes of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) settlements development of opportunistic species (worms)
increasing invasion rate by some exotic species (Mya arenaria, Scapharca inaequivalvis, Rapana venosa) in unoccupied ecological niches without competitors and predators, predacious enemies of littoral malacofauna (e.g. of oyster Ostrea edulis in Georgian waters) later decrease in Rapana abundance (by natural causes in Romanian waters or due to commercial harvesting in Bulgarian ones) only relative increase in zoobenthic species diversity and recovery of hypoxia sensitive groups during post- eutrophication period / adjustment process of benthic communities towards a new quasi- stable equilibrium (slow recovery) INCDM PHYTOPLANKTON best indicators of assessment of state of eutrophication 750 species in Black Sea
composition (taxonomic structure) and abundance (numerical density, biomass) considerably different in various areas main components diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) Skeletonema costatum Chaetoceros socialis Cyclotella caspia dinophytes (Dinophyceae) Prorocentrum cordatum Protoperidinium pellucidum Heterocapsa triquetra spatial and temporal change of their ratio INCDM trend of shift from diatom dominant system to apparent dominance of
opportunistic dinoflagellates (mainly along western shelf and southern Black Sea) due to change in nutrient balance in addition to temperature regime of sea water substantial basin-wide increase of coccolithoforids (spring) occasional abundances of blue green, green and euglena algae blooms (Prorocentrum cordatum, Cerataulina pelagica, requiring a systematic (monthly) monitoring Emiliana huxleyi) improvement of ecological state (i.a. less intense and frequent blooms) INCDM ZOOPLANKTON
critical trophic link between autotrophic (phytoplankton) and higher trophic levels consumer of phytoplankton and microzooplankton (controls their abundance) food resource for pelagic fish larvae and fish (controls their stocks) more productive but lower species diversity (compared, e.g., with Mediterranean Sea) 150 species (70 mainly Ponto-Caspian brackish water types and about 50 meroplankton) thermophylic and euryhaline (Mediterranean) and cold-water (North Atlantic boreal) species both phytophagous and detriphagous strong basin-wide interannual variability in composition and abundance changes in taxonomic structure (with temporary decline of diversity of edible zpk) INCDM - prior increased abundance of gelatinous species (scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita, cystoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans, opportunistic copepod Acartia clausi), indicators of eutrophication, especially in NW Black Sea, due to regional hydrochemical characteristics (nutrient supply from Danube, Dneper
and Dnester runoffs) - exceptional development of alien ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (since 1988) praying on edible zpk, with major side effects on all trophic levels (reduction of food resources for planktivorous and predatory fish) - introduction of predator ctenophore Beroe ovata (from Mediterranean or eastern coast of N Atlantic ballast waters) about 1997 - reduction in abundance of some sensitive zooplanktonic species (Centropages ponticus, Penilia avirostris) - disappearance of some species (e.g. family Monstrillidae in Romanian coastal waters after 80s) improvement of ecological state (i.a. some, even fluctuant, recovery of edible zooplankton community) INCDM MARINE LIVING RESOURCES
Black Sea MLR = about 2oo fish species, <500 mollusks, few macrophytes greatest economic value not more than about 25 species producing about 98% of catch 2% - common less important fish, mollusks, crustaceans, other aquatic biota main catches: anadromous, pelagic, demersal fish total mean annual catch 410,000 tons in 1996-2005 (more than 30,000 t higher than in 1989-1995) - anadromous fish (Alosa pontica, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, A. stellatus, Huso huso) - pelagic fish (Engraulis encrasicolus, Trachurus mediterraneus, Sprattus sprattus, Sarda sarda, Pomatomus saltatrix) - demersal fish (Squalus acanthias, Psetta maxima, Merlangus merlangus, 2 species of Mullus, 4 species of Mugil) INCDM
ecosystem effects on fisheries: leading anthropogenic stressor overfishing pollution degradation of spawning and nursery illegal fishing use of destructive fishing gears fluctuating climate alien species (e.g. M. leidyi) blooms / hypoxia H2S production = collapse of Black Sea fisheries (90s) commercial mollusks (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sea snail (Rapana venosa) clams (Chamtea gallina)
water plants (Cystoseira barbata, Phyllophora nervosa, Zostera marina) improvement in state of MLR during 2000-2005 compared to collaps period (1989-1992) but still inferior to baseline (1970-1988) INCDM CETACEANS 3 cetaceans (Phocoena phocoena relicta, Delphinus delphis ponticus, Tursiops truncatus ponticus) [and 1 pinniped (Monachus monachus)] insufficiency of scientific information (abundance, distribution, migrations, critical habitats, natural and anthropogenic threats, pathology) commercial fishery (1930-1950) banned in 1966 / USSR, RO, BG and 1983 / TR)
accidental mortality in fishing gear, habitat degradation, pollution / epizootics INCDM need for multidisciplinary research - taxonomy and genetics - distribution - abundance - habitat and ecology - life history - past and ongoing threats - population trend - conservation tools and strategies - national instruments - international and regional instruments
- IUCN / Red list of Threatened Animals - Conservation Plan for Black Sea cetaceans (2006) major gaps in knowledge of Black Sea cetaceans INCDM BIODIVERSITY CHANGES / CONCLUSIONS present Black Sea ecosystem different from that documented in 60s improvement and rehabibilitation tendency of coastal Black Sea ecosystems after 1995 visible for water quality parametres and structural and functional properties of biota (compared with conditions from mid 70s to early 90s) pelagic ecosystem of western Black Sea improved considerably due to weakening of anthropogenic pressure: - relative recovery of benthic ecosystem, still fragile
- recovery of some algal populations - increasing plankton diversity - fewer algal blooms - increase of edible zooplankton, - reappearance of some native fodder zooplankton - decrease of opportunistic and gelatinous species INCDM proposal of new diagnostic method to assess long-term improvement of pelagic ecosystem (Yunev et al., 2008) fish stocks still out of balance (due to eutrophication, over fishing, exotic intruders) restoration of ecosystem is a long-lasting process (depending accomplishment of conservation, protection and management measures)
on gaps in knowledge due to absence of sufficiently comprehensive monitoring data anthropic ecosystem damage shows very slow recovery rate despite rehabilitation efforts (e.g. Baltic and North Seas) INCDM BLACK SEA CO-OPERATION AND INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE CIESM, IOC, UNEP, UNDP, FAO, NATO, CECAF, IAEA, IMO, ESRB, IUHPS Commission on the Convention for the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Black Sea Commission) Permanent Secretariat of the Commission (Istanbul, 2000)
GEF / Black Sea Environmental Programme (BSEP) Programme Implementation Unit (of BSEP) Advisory Groups (6) Ad Hoc Working Group on Water Framework Directive (WFD) Activity Centres + National Focal Points (1) Development of Common Methodologies for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (2) Pollution Monitoring Assessment (3) Control of Pollution from Land Based Sources (4) Conservation of Biological Diversity (5) Environmental Aspects of Fisheries and Other Living Resources Management (6) Environmental Safety Aspects of Shipping International Centre on Water Research in the BSEC region (Kiev / Ukraine) International Centre for Black Sea Studies (Athens / Greece) IOI Black Sea Operational Centre (Constanta / Romania) + Affiliated Centre Ukraine (Sevastopol) IOC Regional Black Sea Centre (Varna / Bulgaria)
MEDCOAST (Ankara / Turkey) Balkan Environmental Association (Thessaloniki / Greece) INCDM REFERENCES Black Sea Commission, 2008 / State of the Environment of the Black Sea (2001-2007), Istanbul / Turkey (in press) Bologa A.S., 2001 - Destruction of marine biodiversity - A case study of the Black Sea, in Oceans in the New Millennium: Challenges and Opportunities for the Islands, G.R. South et al., (Eds.), Proceedings, IOI-PIM XXVII, Suva / Fiji, Ed. DaDa, Constanta, 249-254 Bologa A.S., 2001 - Recent changes in the Black Sea ecosystem. IOI Ocean Yearbook, 15, 463-474 Bologa A.S., Bodeanu N., Petran A., Tiganus V., Zaitsev Yu. P., 1995 - Major modifications of the Black Sea benthic and planktonic biota in the last three decades, in
Les mers tributaries de Mediterrane. F. Briand (d.), Bull. Inst. Ocanogr., no. spcial 15, CIESM Science Series no.1, Monaco, 85-110 Dumont H.J. (Ed.), 1999 Black Sea Red Data Book, UN / GEF UNDP, 413 pp GEF Black Sea Environmental Programme Black Sea Biological Diversity, National Reports: Romania (1997), Bulgaria (1998), Ukraine (1998), Georgia (1998), Turkey (1998) INCDM National Institute for Marine Research and Development Grigore Antipa (NIMRD), 2009 Report on the state of marine and coastal environment in 2008 (in Romanian http: // www. rmri.ro + pps in English) Zaitsev Yu.P. and ztrk B., 2001 Exotic species in the Aegean, Marmara, Black, Azov and Caspian Seas, Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul / Turkey, 267 pp, Black Sea Environmental Series, vol. 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 Zaitsev Yu.P., Mamaev V., 1997 Marine biological diversity in the Black Sea,
a study of change and decline, GEF Black Sea Env. Progr., UN Publ., New York, 208 pp INCDM OTHER JOINT BLACK SEA OUTPUTS / REFERENCES Black Sea Environmental Programme (BSEP) (1993) Black Sea Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (GEF / 1997) Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (BS-SAP) (Istanbul / 1996-1997) + National Black Sea Action Plans Black Sea Pollution Assessment (Mee & Topping / 1998) Environmental Degradation of the Black Sea: Challenges and Remedies (Besiktepe, nlata & Bologa / 1999) INCDM
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS (1) Black Sea ecosystem still in advanced state of ecological disequilibrium (2) Positive achievements in regional co-operation by successfull joint Black Sea related research, monitoring and management projects / programmes (3) Better knowledge of recent changes in Black Sea ecosystem, biodiversity and appropiate management of living resources (4) Strong need for adequate policies regarding Black Sea environmental monitoring and protection (5) Need for harmonization of National Black Sea monitoring programmes (according to presently gained / shared experience) including biodiversity (6) Need for continuing regional co-operation, including Danube riparian countries and international expertise (7) Need for exchange of environmental data and development of regional databases and networks for scientific use, decision makers and end users INCDM
Matching Common Application and Naviance Student. The student's Naviance Student Account and Common App account must be "MATCHED" so that they are electronically linked. Without this matching, counselors are unable to send any materials for Common App schools. To Match...
The second order neurons cross over to the opposite side of the spinal cord and ascends in the SPINOTHALAMIC TRACT up to the THALAMUS. At the thalamus, it synapses with the third order neuron which projects to the post central...
We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction: Sexual Orientation. An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender.
*Simulation with Arena — Intermediate Modeling and Terminating Statistical Analysis * Last update August 20, 1998 Instructor: Open up Statistics module, several entries in Outputs area *Simulation with Arena — Chapter 6 Intermediate Modeling and Terminating Statistical Analysis * *...
Color symbolism Symbol Symbols, whether public or literary, work by association. apple on a desk late night knock red rose Symbol Authors can make use of well-known symbols, create their own symbols, or combine elements of both public and literary...
Ca' Foscari University of Venice Dorsoduro 3246, 30123 Venice, Italy Website: www.unive.it Tel.: +39 041 234 8111 The city of Venice Venice stretches across 120 small islands in the Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea, in Northeast Italy.