Noções básicas de hereditariedade

Noções básicas de hereditariedade

Noes bsicas de hereditariedade Localizao da informao gentica CINCIAS NATURAIS 9 ANO 1

Como que herdamos as caractersticas dos nossos pais? nos gmetas que transportada a informao gentica que os nossos pais nos transmitem. 2 Como que herdamos as caractersticas dos nossos pais? A informao gentica rene-se no ovo 3

Como que herdamos as caractersticas dos nossos pais? Todas as clulas do beb apresentam mesmo material gentico o 4 Que regio da clula tm o material gentico? Homem

Clula 5 Experincia Joachim Hammerling (1930) Acetabularia uma alga unicelular com 2cm. Chapu onde se

encontram a maioria dos cloroplastos. Caulide prolongamento citoplasmtico Rizide ou base onde se localiza o ncleo permite a fixao da alga s rochas 6

Experincia Joachim Hammerling (1930) O ncleo deve ser a estrutura da clula responsvel pela regenerao e crescimento da alga. 7 Experincia Joachim Hammerling (1930)

O ncleo contm a informao sobre as caractersticas da forma da alga. 8 Que regio da clula tm o material gentico? Homem Clula Ncleo no ncleo das clulas que se encontra a

informao hereditria. 9 Observao de clulas do pice radicular da cebola As clulas desta regio esto em diviso celular. No interior do ncleo observam-se estruturas facilmente corveis.

Cromossomas Cromossomas (cromo = cor + soma = corpo) 10 Observao do ncleo? Homem Clula Ncleo

Cromossom 11 as Como um cromossoma? cromatdeos centrmero Observado ao microscpio electrnico 12

Como constitudo o cromossoma? 13 Como constitudo o cromossoma? ADN Protena (histona) Filamento de cromatina Cromossoma 14

ADN (cido desoxirribonucleico) 15 ADN (cido desoxirribonucleico) O ADN o mateial bsico da hereditariedade, copia-se a s prprio, garantindo que as instrues sejam transmitidas da clula-me para as clulas-filhas. Estas instrues cumandam a produo de molculas que constituem as 16

Que regio da clula tm o material gentico? Homem Ncleo Clula A informao gentica encontra-se no ADN dentro do ncleo das clulas. ADN

Cromossom 17 as Onde se localiza o material gentico? O ncleo de cada clula humana apresenta assim 46 cromossomas que encerram a nossa informao gentica. 18 Arrumar os cromossomas

O conjunto de cromossomas de uma clula que, pelo seu nmero, forma e tamanho caracteriza uma dada espcie designa-se de CARITIPO. CARITIPO A espcie humana tem 46 cromossomas emparelhados dois a dois 19 Caritipo de vrias espcies Espcie N de cromossomas

Espcie N de cromossomas Drosfila 8 Humano 46 Centeio

14 Macaco 48 Coelho 44 Rato

44 Cobaia 16 Carneiro 54 Trigo 42

Cavalo 64 Caracol 24 Galo 78

Minhoca 32 Carpa 104 Porco 40 Borboleta

380 20 FIM 22

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