Nomenclature Chapter 5 - Cathedral High School

Nomenclature Chapter 5 - Cathedral High School

Nomenclature Chapter 5 Classifying Binary Compounds Compounds containing a metal and a nonmetal are binary ionic Type I and II Compounds containing two nonmetals Type III Compounds containing H and a nonmetal = Acids

Type III - Binary Compounds of 2 Nonmetals These binary compounds always start with a nonmetal or a metalloid. Thats the easiest way to identify them. They will contain no metals! Name first element in formula first, use the full name of the element

Name the second element in the formula as if it were an anion However, remember these compounds do not contain ions, so DO NOT USE THE CRISS-CROSS METHOD!!! Type III Binary Molecular Compounds Use a prefix in front of each name to indicate the number of atoms Never use the prefix mono- on the first element Prefixes: 1-mono, 2-di, 3-tri, 4-tetra,5-penta, 6-hexa, 7-hepta, 8-octa, 9-nona, 10-deca, 11undeca, 12-dodeca. To write the formula for binary molecular compounds, write the number next to the

compound if there is a prefix, if not just write the symbol itself. Binary Molecular Compounds Examples Naming Compounds SiF2 - silicon difluoride Writing Formulas Nitrogen trichloride NCl3 C3Cl9 - tricarbon nonachloride

Triphosphorus pentoxide - P3O5 S4I7 tetrasilicon heptaiodide Hexasulfur monofluoride - S6F Diselenium pentabromide Se2Br5 P5O10 pentaphosphorus octoxide

Metal Cations Type I Metals that can only have one possible charge Determine charge by position on the Periodic Table Type II Metals that can have more than one possible charge Determine metal cations charge from the charge on anion

Type II Binary Ionic Compounds Contain Metal Cation + Nonmetal Anion Metal listed first in formula & name Name metal cation first, name nonmetal anion second Metal cation name is the metal name followed by a Roman Numeral in parentheses to indicate its

charge Determine charge from anion charge Common Type II cations in Table 5.2 (page 128 or on Week #3 Ions & Symbols List) Nonmetal anion named by changing the ending on the nonmetal name to -ide Naming Binary Type II Compounds Cu+1 and N-3

Iron (III) phosphide Hg+2 and O-2 Manganese (II) fluoride Cr+3 and P-3 Gold (I) telluride Sn+4 and Cl-1 Lead (IV) bromide

Ni+4 and S-2 Cobalt (III) arsenide Ionic Compounds Sometimes you can use the reverse of the criss-cross method to determine the charges for the transition metals. When naming compounds, you do not need to tell how many atoms of each ion are present.

Naming Ionic Compounds Examples Au2S NiS2 MnO Cr3P2 Fe3N2 PbF4

CuCl2 HgI Figure 5.1: A flow chart for naming binary compounds. Ionic Compounds Ternary ionic compounds contain atoms of three or more different elements, usually a polyatomic ion. Writing the formulas for ternary

compounds is done in the same way as binary compounds. The polyatomic ions stays together though. Ionic Compounds When you need more than one polyatomic ion in your formula, put parentheses around the ion, and how many of them you need outside the parentheses as a subscript. NEVER MOVE SUBSCRIPTS OF THE IONS, ONLY THE CHARGES!!!

Writing Formulas for Ternary Ionic Compound Examples Calcium sulfate Ca+2 and SO4-2 Sodium chlorate Na+1 and ClO3-1 Magnesium hydroxide Mg+2 and OH-1 Potassium phosphate K+1 and PO4-3 Iron (III) carbonate Fe+3 and CO3-2

Tin (IV) chromate Sn+4 and CrO4-2 Nickel (II) dihydrogen phosphate Ni+2 and H2PO4-1 Chromium (III) sulfate Cr+3 and SO4-2 Copper (II) acetate Cu+2 and C2H3O2-1 Iron (II) permanganate Fe+2 and MnO4-1 Ionic Compounds

When naming ternary compounds, name the cation (first symbol in the formula unless it is ammonium, NH4+1) first, and then the rest of the formula, which will only have one name, unless it contains hydrogen. Naming Ternary Ionic Compounds Ca(NO3)2 Ni3(PO3)4 KClO3

Fe(CN)2 BaSO3 Mn(HCO3)3 AlPO4 Au2CO3 CuOH

Cr2HPO4 Acids Naming & Writing Formulas for Acids All acids begin with a hydrogen, and are neutral compounds. In all acids, the cation is the hydrogen ion, H+1. Anions change their endings when they become acids. Acids -ide ions become hydro root ic acid

Ex: chloride becomes hydrochloric acid -ate ions become root ic acid Ex: nitrate becomes nitric acid -ite ions become root ous acid Ex: chlorite becomes chlorous acid Acids Naming & Formula Writing Examples Naming Acids H3PO3 Writing Formulas for Acids Sulfuric acid

HI Hydroarsenic acid HCN Perchloric acid H2C4H4O6 Hypoiodous acid

Hydrates Hydrates are when you have a certain number of water molecules attached to a compound (usually an ionic compound) The number of water molecules is shown after the formula for a compound and separated from the remainder of the compound by a dot. Hydrates Use the same prefixes as you did when naming binary molecular compounds to tell how many water molecules are present

in a hydrate (1 = mono, 2 = di, ) An anhydrous compound is one that contains no water molecules. Hydrate Examples . 5H O Mg(NO ) . 3 H O CuSO 4 2

3 2 2 Barium chloride dihydrate Ammonium acetate octahydrate Basic Organic Compounds You will need to know the names of the first 10 alkanes (hydrocarbons containing only single bonds). The generic formula of these alkanes is:

CnH2n+2 Basic Organic Compounds Methane CH4 Ethane C2H6 Propane C3H8 Butane C4H10 Pentane C5H12 Hexane - C6H14 Heptane - C7H16 Octane - C8H18 Nonane - C9H20

Decane - C10H22

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