NonProfit Fiscal Management With A Focus on Understanding ...
fiNNNononoonprofit Fiscal Financial Management: What You Need To Know For All Executive Directors, Senior Finance Staff and Board Treasurers By: Pamela English Administrative Director May 2015 Agenda 1. Financial legal requirements 2. Grants Management 101 I.What you need to know II.Tips/suggestions 3. Budgeting and Reporting I.Best practices II.Cost Allocations 4. Audits, or A Financial Review I.Threshold II.Compliance Board and Staff Responsibilities Specific Management Responsibilities:
Overseeing the financial activity of the organization, including requiring regular, at least monthly, complete financial reports from finance staff or contract staff (including revenue and expenses, compared to the budget) (and expect the board to hold staff accountable for meeting the standards of timely reporting.) Assuring that appropriate financial controls are followed. Creating the annual operating budget. Achieving fiscal goals as set out in the strategic and fundraising plans. Establishing procedures and policies that represent high ethical standards; presenting to Board for approval. Providing information on financial matters to the Board that raise questions. Support the Board in strategic discussions on how resources should be developed and used to support the mission of the organization. Internal Controls One definition: The structure/processes that protect you and ensure that the agency is not only practicing good financial management, but adheres to the guidelines and checklists in the Board manual. General Rule: no one person should be in a position to
completely control all aspects of a transaction from its initiation through approval, handling of assets, and recording. Common Term: Segregation of Duties Five Internal Controls for Small Nonprofits What Senior Leadership Should Know What state agency has authority over nonprofits; what documents are required to be filed with that agency and over what time period(s) Create a finance committee; how often do they meet; require minutes/notes from every meeting Make sure financial policies are written and in place to ensure sustainability of the org (reserves; fiscal procedures; internal controls; etc.) ; update them on regular basis or when major changes occur Agency conflict of interest policy; have all Board & staff review and sign; make sure this is done annually? What Senior Leadership Should Know continued Policies: Manual:
All can be created and maintained in Fiscal Agency conflict of interest policy; have all Board & staff review and sign; make sure this is done annually? Whistleblower Record policy retention policy Finance management calendar/software Clerk/Treasurer should know where IRS 501C3 designation letter, articles of incorporation, relevant filings with State offices exist within the agency/server Financial Resources-Readily available to You and Your Board Agencys Fiscal Manual Narrative highlights of the past fiscal year (examples of this
are grant increases/cuts; new programming grants & changes in programming funding; methods used to minimize any negative changes) Approved operating budget for the current year IRS Form 990 for the past fiscal year Audited financial statements or financial review documents for the year just ended Fiscal Manual sections Entity Organization and Personnel Budgeting Process Accounting System Financial Practice
Appendices: Forms Grants Management Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars Civil rights compliance Confidentiality and privacy protections of the Violence Against Women Act Anti-Lobbying Act Reporting Requirements Suspension or Termination of Funding Dun and Bradstreet Data Universal Number System (DUNS number Active System for Award Management (SAM) registration Make sure senior staff (Executive Director/Finance Director) understands requirements of each Federal contract, including the OMB circulars and can inform the Board of those requirements upon inquiry Grants Management-Federal Funds Staff read all requirements in grant application Staff read and understand all requirements in grant award Staff have available to them the Scope of Services part of the grant application/award and understand what they are responsible for: Program management/delivery Reporting responsibility
Data collection Set up grants management calendar/software Annual Budget Annual budget should be prepared and presented to Board at least 3 months prior to fiscal year beginning Annual budgeting process should include: analyzing current income and expense to budget and forecasting to end of year written assumptions Annual Budget, continued Finance committee or board should ask questions during development such as:
What parts of budget are new and may be reflective of the strategic plan? Regarding personnel: What health insurance increase is projected? Are there salary increases budgeted? Annual Budget, continued What can we do to generate operating surplus to fund reserves? Regarding organizational development, budget for: Special meetings Board trainings Leadership succession activities/expenses Overview of Agencys Finances: Review of Financial Statements Agency Quarterly/Monthly Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet)
Agency Quarterly/Monthly Statement of Activities Agency Quarterly/Monthly Statement of Cash Flows Agency Quarterly/Monthly Budget Report Dashboard instead of the very detailed Statement of Activities, Statement of Financial Position or Budget Report Agency Quarterly/Monthly Statement of Financial Position Questions can be asked monthly/quarterly: Have the current assets increased or decreased? If the current assets have changed, how does this change compare to the change in the current liabilities? (This will help you decide how well an organization is
able to pay its bills and current expense.) What does the statement tell you about the organization's financial position? Do you expect the organization to pay its bills when they come due? What are the organization's largest liabilities? Agency Quarterly/Monthly Statement of Activities Questions can be asked monthly/quarterly: Compare this periods bottom line to the prior period; Then consider the various items that have made an impact on the bottom line. Have the gross revenues gone up or down? Have the sources of revenue changed? What are the key sources of revenue, and have they gone up or done? What about expenses--have total expenses gone up or down? How does the change in expenses relate to the change in revenue? Which individual expenses have changed significantly?
Agency Budget Report A summary of the revenue and expenses by common grant/program titles for a specific period - for Coalition, fiscal year-to-date - reported monthly. Questions can be asked monthly/quarterly: Why is there a specific % increase or decrease for any line item? Is any line item particularly unusual? Is Finance Committee taking certain items into consideration for next years budget? NHCADSV Monthly Budget Report FY 2015 Approved vs Actual Budget as of March 31, 2015 3/31/2015 Total FY15 Actual YTD REVENUE Budget (9 mos./75%) Domestic Violence Prevention Program 47,074 37,084 Endowment for Health Child Trauma
30,886 30,886 Family Violence Prevention Services Act coalition 238,430 166,944 Member Dues 14,000 9,000 Misc. Income (inc. honorariums) 1,000 1,179 Statewide Program to Improve Response to DV 12,044 9,384 Sexual Violence Prevention 77,741 10,803 Unrestricted (Contributions) 52,500 93,900 Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) coalition 226,840 172,610 VAWA Grants to Encourage Arrest 53,699 21,716 Verizon NO MORE Campaign 10,000 4,104 Verizon Translation 8,000 1,036
Victims of Crime Act 113,000 52,857 TOTAL REVENUE 885,214 611,502 3/31/2015 Total FY15 Actual YTD EXPENSES Budget (9 mos./75%) 432,000 Personnel 546,046 73,128 Benefits 101,759 1,136 Accounting Services 1,200 529 Advertising/recruitment 475 10,220 Audit 10,145 4,129 Community Education 10,000 3,186 Copying 4,600
95% 111% 101% 41% 69% 46% 45% 59% 71% 32% 83% 65% 60% 72% 77% 75% 55% 39% 68% 76% 76% 102% 75% Grant ended 2014 Credit card rewards Staff not hired til Feb. 2015 Inc Purple Purse campaign Paid for the year
Higher heating bills Dashboard Reports Used by Boards instead of very detailed Statement of Activities, Statement of Financial Position or Budget Report Have pros and cons Provides an overview Usually includes: Performance indicators Targets Trends Instituting Dashboard Reporting
Things to Consider: Determine ongoing use/appropriate audience Agree on what matters Agree on targets Agree on range values Engage across roles/departments or Not (finance, HR, fundraising, board governance, programs) FINANCIAL DASHBOARD Performance Indicators Targets 3 mos ago 6 mos ago 9 mos ago $412,916
Days of cash on hand (Total cash divided by average daily expenses) 60 days $105,500 $338,285 Operating Reserve Improvement plan (Total operating expenses divided by 12 months) 3 mos. $160,000 .05 mos. $36,000 Capital Reserve Improvement plan (no less than 5% of total equipment & property) Unrestricted Liquidity (Cash) $25,000 $ 17,425 As of March 2015
Target Trend As of March 2015 $ 36,000 $ 17,425 $297,525 $ 30,000 $ 7,388 $371,555 $ 30,000 $ 7,388 Trend 1 year ago 2 years ago3 years ago
July to October $9,500 $54,734* $20,118** July to February $10,000 $64,734* $23,348** July to June $10,500 $7,974 $4,486 $41,529*** $25,088*** Celebrate Ranges Monitor Act Now 60 days
45 days 30 days equal to or greater less than than 3 3 or = to mos. 2 mos. $160,000 $80,000 less than or equal to 1 mos. $53,300 $25,000 or above between $25,000 & $15,000 less than $15,000 Celebrate Ranges
Monitor Act Now less than equal to or equal or greater to 45% than 50% 30% less than 30% Does not include Fund for Grace, Operating Reserve or Capital reserve *Includes Purple Purse campaign **1 yr ago high due to $14,000 to Development from unrest balance FY13 & $10,000 Coach donation ***2 yrs & 3 yrs ago high due to $25,000 Development grant Peer docs/EXCEL/Misc/Dashboard sample Approved Budget vs. Actual FY15 YTD as of March 31, 2015 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000
600,000 400,000 200,000 REVENUE EXPENSES Budget FY15 1,552,765 1,550,679 2,086 Net Income/(Loss) % 0.13% YTD Actual 1,064,670 1,027,678 36,992 3.47% Net
Income/(Loss) Audit or Financial Review Financial accountability is a hallmark of a strong, well run nonprofit. Boards are responsible for the fiscal oversight of their organization and value the extra level of assurance of having an outside organization review the books. Some organizations have the choice of conducting either a financial review or audit, depending on the size of their revenue. The Form 990 from the IRS asks whether an organizations statements have been compiled, reviewed or audited. Audit or Financial Review, continued Your State may have requirements determining what to file based upon budget size--a financial review or audit. A financial review is a process in which an accountant asks the organization to submit a series of financial documents. The accountant then reviews those documents and presents financial reports to the
organization. It is good practice for the Board of Directors to request a presentation from the accountant and then vote to accept the written review presented by the accountant. Audit or Financial Review, continued An audit is a more extensive process that involves a review of an organizations accounting systems and practices to determine the reliability of those systems as well as the accuracy of the financial statements generated by those systems. There are two phases to an audit Planning Onsite visit Audit or Financial Review, continued Phase 1. PLANNING PHASE: In the planning phase, the auditing firm requests an exhaustive list of information which it examines carefully. The
firm then communicates with the Board or designated committee about its assessment during the planning stage. Audit or Financial Review, continued Phase 2. ONSITE VISIT: The accountant then comes on site to the nonprofit to verify the accuracy of the documents received. On site visits involve reviewing processes and sometime conducting interviews with staff to verify practices are consistent with stated policies and to witness internal controls. Following on site visits, the accountant then presents the audit findings to the organization, often to the finance committee or full board. As with Financial Reviews, it is considered good practice for the Board of Directors to vote on the written audit presented by the accountant. Federal Audit Threshold As a result of new rules from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), not-for-profit entities will be required
to undergo a single audit only if they spend $750,000 or more in federal awards in a fiscal year. Keep in mind, the threshold relates to expenses, not revenues. An organization may receive more than $750,000 and not be required to undergo a Single Audit if it doesn't spend more than $750,000. What Does It Mean to Be Clean A clean opinion (UNQUALIFIED) provides the highest level of assurance that THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS are doing what is intended. 1. 2. 3. The Statement of Financial Position fairly presents the organization's financial position; The Statement of Activities fairly presents the results of the organizations operations; and The Statement of Cash Flows fairly presents its cash flows. Resources and Handouts
Board Caf, Blue Avocado, The Board Source, Guidestar, The Foundation Center Alliance for Nonprofit Management https://www.allianceonline.org NH Center for Non Profits www.nhnonprofits.org Technology, Finances, Accountability www.techsoup.org Non Profit Risk Management Center www.nonprofitrisk.org IKNOW http://www.iknow.org/financial/Pages/financial.aspx Office of Justice Programs, Financial Guide http://ojp.gov/financialguide/PDFs/OCFO_2014Financial_Guide.pdf Circulars https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/grants_circulars Idealist http://www.idealist.org/info/Nonprofits l IRS http://www.irs.gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Steve Zimmerman of Spectrum Nonprofit Services, for initial dashboard information Christine Bradbury, NHCADSV, for her assistance with organizing these materials Cat Fribley of the National Sexual Assault Coalition Resource Sharing Project for her information regarding board and staff responsibilities
Lindsay McDaniel Mapp of the National Network to End Domestic Violence for her overall guidance HANDOUTS: Fiduciary Duties of Boards Core Areas of Nonprofit Finance checklist Financial Questions Every Board Member Should Ask Financial Dashboard Sample 10 Step Annual Budgeting Checklist Congratulations, Were Done! THANK YOU from the Presenter: Pamela English Administrative Director NH Coalition Against Domestic & Sexual Violence PO Box 353 Concord, NH 03302 (603) 224-8893 ext. 308 [email protected]
Questions in the lesson such as, "According to Justice Douglas, how do penumbras give 'life and substance' to the explicitly stated rights?" are carefully crafted to allow students to linger over and analyze challenging sections of the text that are...
A typical day is 8 hours and is flexible, as long as the employee is present during "core" hours Common Misconceptions First and foremost it is a business Only 1 in 20 games breaks even, so companies rarely take a...
Cardiac Output. Still, some people have stronger heart than others. Their heart can pump more blood and allow them to do more work. The amount of blood that your heart pumps in a minute is called Cardiac Output (Q)
What Germany did: 1936- talks with Britain about exchanging re-militarization for no-bomb "air pact" - showed Germany Remilitarization was not that big of a deal (something to be traded instead of forbidden) Hitler was nervous about this, but France did...
Hardi Peter KIS Steiner et al. (1997) ApJ 495, 468 2D-simulation of a flux tube embedded in photospheric granulation (radiation-MHD) 2400 km x 1400 km, 18 min ...well, the ultimate energy source is the fusion in the center of the...
Pajak dan penilaian saham dampak pajak atas M&A, capital structure, pengaruh pajak investor terhadap harga saham. Multijurisdictional perusahaan multinasional dan perusahaan multistate. ... Ancrew P. Shmidt, The Accounting Review, May 2006:81 .