NT(IBS)530 GOSPEL OF MARK CONTEXTUAL HERMENEUTIC NOTE-TAKING GUIDE Class Emphases Content Canonical Placement Programmatic Events, Themes Existential Urgency Class Emphases Method Institutional Commitment:
Plant Orchard Level I IBS Several Profs, Same Dept. & Class Emphases Convictions Centrality of Scripture to wholistic ministry Every minister a skilled and thoughtful interpreter Variety of gifts exercised from foundation of essentials Long obedience vs. method fads WHAT THIS CLASS IS ABOUT Learning to hear
Gods Voice in Scripture as an active listener -- a very active listener. CONTEXTUAL HERMENEUTIC Hermeneutics: The science of understanding written documents to explain, interpret, translate Contextual: Developed from Scriptures contexts and our own as well. IBS MADE SIMPLE: THE 5 Cs Consecration: prayer
Content: observation Concept: interpretation Canon: evaluation Conduct: application METHOD PREVIEW Consecration ...all in the name of the Lord... Observation What did the writer(s) write? Interpretation What did the writer mean? Evaluation How does this text speak cross-culturally? Application How should we then live? Faith Context
SOME CONVICTIONS CENTRAL. Interpretation of the Bible-precise, specific, penetrating-- is central to Christian ministry and the nurturing of the people of God. CONSTITUTIONAL. All Christian ministers are professional Bible interpreters. FOUNDATIONAL. Bible interpretation is foundational for all ministry and all theological disciplines. Faith Context SOME CONVICTIONS COMMUNAL. Good interpretation is both individual - direct and communal-collegial
Community of Christian faith Respected colleagues past & present Community of negative or alternate faith Truth & grace not confined to the faithful Contextual Hermeneutic FAITH CONTEXT METHOD IMPLICATIONS Prayer and illumination of Gods Spirit as serious considerations Avid attention to Scripture itself a lifedeath priority (cf. Genesis 1-2; Psalm 1; 119; John 6:68)
Spiritual disciplines; means of grace Contextual Hermeneutic LISTENERS CONTEXT FOUNDATIONS Theological Foundation: Revelation as communication Scripture as revelation Theoretical Foundation: Communication Matrix Contextual Hermeneutic Purposeful Writing Complex,
Varied cf. Amos, Proverbs, Psalter, Gospels, Philemon Space - Time Barrier God Writer(s) Think Moves Reader Listener Ancient & Modern Major Link w. Mind of writer and God
Written Text Writers Thoughts [& Gods!] Communication Matrix as a model for biblical hermeneutic METHOD IMPLICATIONS OF COMMUNICATION MATRIX Listening as a Method Priority (Oral Communication) Speaker Message
Hearer Observation as a Method Priority (Written Communication) Writer Message Reader Interpretive Method Method: a step by step process that makes it possible: 1. To discover the past-historical meaning of the biblical text; and 2. To relate this original, historical meaning to contemporary
situations and problems Method Implications of Observation Priority Direct observation vs. Bible as collateral, study of professors notes, etc. Initially inductive mode Evidence Conclusions|versus Initially deductive mode
Premise or a priori theological claim Conclusions I. OBSERVATION What did the writer write? Explanatory Metaphors Detective Accurate, precise observation Communication Model Active listening Hermeneutics Making sense of Biblical Texts Prayer
Dependence on the Spirit Humility I. Historical Interpretation What the text meant to historical authors/readers Inductive-Independent Work Observations Analysis Paragraph-Level Detailed Analysis Segment-Level Analysis/Survey Book-Level Analysis/Survey Questions-Possibilities
Research (Primary Research) Interactive Work Consultation (Secondary Research) Commentaries Word Study Volumes Theologies Encyclopedias Journal Articles History of Interpretation Hermeneutics (a la JDongell) Making sense of Biblical Texts
Prayer Dependence on the Spirit Humility I. Historical Interpretation What the text meant to historical authors/readers A. Inductive-Independent Work Analysis (Obs -->> Inf) Paragraph-Level Detailed Analysis Segment-Level Analysis/Survey Book-Level Analysis/Survey Primary Source
Questions Possibilities Primary Sources Research Beyond Bible Text Lexicons Grammars Syntaxes Texts Artifacts LITERARY NATURE OF THE MESSAGE: OBSERVATION AGENDAS Multi-language availability of the text implies flexibility in textual base
(Tensions of Revelation in History) Particularity of inscripturation of revelation vs. Process of transmission & translation LITERARY MESSAGE: OBSERVATION AGENDAS (Tensions of Revelation in History) Stabalized (canonical?) text
vs. Translations Revisions Stabilized text: -->> Touchstone Status of Biblical Language Study Authoritative Translation/revision: -->> Vernacular as Word of God and worthy of serious study Contextual Hermeneutic Writer(s) Think Moves Purposeful Writing Complex, Varied
cf. Amos, Proverbs, Psalter, Gospels, Philemon 1. Discreet Units 2. Form & Genre 3. Structured 4. Canon Space - Time Barrier God Reader Listener Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Written
Text Writers Thoughts [& Gods Thoughts!] Ancient & Modern Observe (Partial - Indispensable) Implied Method Priority Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned LITERARY MESSAGE:
OBSERVATION AGENDAS Unitary (discreet document) text implies observation-intrepretation of books-as-wholes, beginning with book survey Literary-canonical basis (return to canonizers stance) Contextual basis Procedural basis SURVEY OF UNITS-AS-WHOLES: SPECIFIC MATERIALS GIVE UNIT TITLES (paragraphs, segments, divisions, books)
God Reader Listener Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Written Text Writers 1. Discrete Units Thoughts 2. Form & Genre [& Gods Thoughts!] 3. Structured 4. Canon
Ancient & Modern Observe (Partial - Indispensable) Implied Method Priority Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned BOOK SURVEY: LITERARY FORM & GENRE Literary form and genre (For genre awareness in biblical writers, see:) Song of praise, Ps 145:1
Song of Zion, Ps 137:3 Amos 5:1 Lament, Amos 5:1 Genesis, toledot / generations, stories organized around family development Contextual Hermeneutic Writer(s) Think Moves Purposeful Writing Complex, Varied cf. Amos, Proverbs, Psalter, Gospels, Philemon
1. Discrete Units 2. Form & Genre 3. Structured 4. Canon Space - Time Barrier God Reader Listener Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Written Text Writers
Thoughts [& Gods Thoughts!] Ancient & Modern Observe (Partial - Indispensable) Implied Method Priority Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned COMMUNICATION MATRIX: STRUCTURED COMMUNICATION
Common property of homo-sapiens Cross-cultural reality No western imposition Complexity of source/motive Intentional-unintentional spectrum Instruction from experience METHOD IMPLICATIONS OF STRUCTURED COMMUNICATION Observe literary structure Semantic (logical, primary) Rhetorical (artistic, secondary) (BSTW2:36-43; MBS:36-63)
Interpret material as structured Neither material without structure Nor structure divorced from material STRUCTURE: TWO COMPONENTS 1. Major units & sub-units Consider major shifts in emphasis 1 Major 3 4 Emphasis 1 Emph. Emph. A B
8 9 Major Emphasis 2 Emph. A Emph. B 14 Major Emphasis 3 Emph. A
Emph. B STRUCTURE: TWO COMPONENTS 1. Major units & sub-units Consider major structural relationships 1 Preparation 3 4 8 14
Realization Cause Implies Major Break 9 Implies Major Break Effect LITERARY STRUCUTRES? See slides at end of Note
Taking Guide for treatment of each of the major semantic and rhetorical structures. STRUCTURE: TWO COMPONENTS 2. Major structural relationships Semantic (logical, primary) Rhetorical (artistic, secondary) (BSTW2:36-43; MBS:36-63) (Note symbiotic tie between identification of literary units and identification of major structural relationships.) PRIMARY STRUCTURES Semantic, logical relationships
Particularization Pivot, Cruciality Generalization Concession SECONDARY STRUCTURES Rhetorical, artistic relationships Interchange Inclusio Chiasm Climax? Intercalation LEVELS OF STRUCTURE Book Relationships Between Divisions
Level Division Relationships between Sections Section Relations betw. Segments Segment Paragraph Level Rel. betw. Paragraphs between Clauses STRUCTURED COMMUNICATION OBSERVATION AGENDAS KEY VERSES / STRATEGIC PASSAGES
Represent major structural relationships -->> Provide particularly important insight into book/unit as a whole Provide direction for study Give focus for preaching/teaching STRUCTURED COMMUNICATION OBSERVATION AGENDAS IDENTIFYING STRATEGIC PASSAGES One passage representing each major structure Commended by structural arrangement itself + Directly: summarization, climax, cruciality, generalization/particularization, inclusio
+ Indirectly: best representative COMMUNICATION MATRIX: SPACE-TIME BARRIER Source Revelation in history Reality of all communication Result Inadequacy of initial hearing Partial, intuitive, culture-bound Danger False confidence SPACE-TIME BARRIER: Method Implications Need:
Intentional listening/understanding (beyond intuitive) Method: Questions Answer on basis of evidence Goal: Enter entire world of text II. INTERPRETATION What did the writer mean? Explanatory Metaphors Detective Drawing warranted conclusions from evidence Communication Model
Asking questions, drawing conclusions Contextual Hermeneutic Moves Purposeful Writing Space - Time Barrier God Writer(s) Think Reader Listener Major Link w. Mind of writer
and God Written Text Observe Writers Thoughts [& Gods Thoughts!] Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned Contextual Hermaneutic Writer(s) Think
Moves Purposeful Writing Space - Time Barrier God Written Text Ask Key Questions Reader Listener Ancient & Modern Major Link w. Mind of writer
and God Observe Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned Writers Thoughts [& Gods Want Want More More Adequate Adequate Thoughts!] Understanding? Impl Reason Definition
Answer From Evidence Understanding? Less Less Culture-Bound? Culture-Bound? More More Complete? Complete? ThenMust ThenMust Inquire Inquire of of Meaning Meaning Hermeneutics Making sense of Biblical Texts
Prayer Dependence on the Spirit Humility I. Historical Interpretation What the text meant to historical authors/readers Inductive-Independent Work Observations Analysis Paragraph-Level Detailed Analysis Segment-Level Analysis/Survey Book-Level Analysis/Survey
Questions-Possibilities Research (Primary Research) Interactive Work Consultation (Secondary Research) Commentaries Word Study Volumes Theologies Encyclopedias Journal Articles History of Interpretation
i.e., INTERPRETATION DEFINITIONAL QUESTIONS Ask for basic meaning Specific: What does ______ (word, expression, paragraph) mean? General: What is involved in ________? INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION RATIONAL QUESTIONS Ask for reasons Why is / does ________?
IMPLICATIONAL QUESTIONS Ask about implications & assumptions What is implied by _________? INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION IMPLICATIONS -- NOT APPLICATIONS What the text assumes What logically follows from the text Assumptions behind the text
Logical consequences from the text INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION Determinants:* sources of information for anwering interpretive questions Objective determinants Subjective determinants cf. Strategies above. *Traina. Methodical Bible Study, pp. 135-164; BSTW2, 49-64 INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION
[ Preliminary definition] Context Objective Determinants (immediate, broad) Structure Grammar Syntax Word use Biblical, extra-biblical Scriptural testimony Historical background History of tradition Other interpreters Contextual Hermeneutic
Writer(s) Think Space - Time Barrier God LINKS: SPIRIT, GENES, LANGUAGE, EXPERIENCE Moves Purposeful Writing Written Text Ask Key Questions Impl
Reason Definition Reader Listener Writers Thoughts [& Gods Thoughts!] Ancient & Modern Major Link w. Mind of writer and God Observe Intuitive Understanding
Immediate, Partial, Culture-conditioned Reflective Reflective Understanding? Understanding? More MoreCorrect? Correct?More More Complete? Complete? Inquire Inquireof ofMeaning Meaning Answer From Evidence External and Internal
INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION Subjective Determinants* Spiritual sense Common sense Experience *Traina. Methodical Bible Study, pp. 136-138; BSTW, 63-64 INTENTIONAL LISTENING: (DETAILED) OBSERVATION / ANALYSIS Types of observations 1. Terms.
e.g., root, inflection, type (lit./fig.) 2. Grammar & syntax (of words, phrases, clauses) e.g., subject, predicate, prep. phrase 3. Structure, laws of relationship e.g., contrast, causation INTENTIONAL LISTENING: DETAILED OBSERVATION / ANALYSIS Types of observations 4. Logic. Logical function, type of meaning expressed e.g., scope, extent, action, actor 5. Context. Relationship between elements in the
verse and surrounding materials INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION STRATEGIES FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS Define key terms preliminarily (biblical language lexicons) Analyze with inferences + Strategic passage + Unit structure (thought-flow) + Themes, issues in unit + (Mine survey data) INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION STRATEGIES FOR ANSWERING
QUESTIONS - Doing Analysis Discern parts (thought-flow or otherwise) Describe essence Describe interrelationships Move between levels according to need (detailed obervation, thought-flow, general, select, etc.) INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION STRATEGIES FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS Term (expression) meaning from + Use (book, corpus, testament, canon)
+ Secondary sources Social-historical backgrounds + Enter world of the text through text itself (analysis) + Secondary sources LITERARY MESSAGE: OBSERVATION AGENDAS Historical text implies need to understand historical settings related to it: writer, readers, worldof the text. Locate historical data in text itself (place, date, occasion, etc.), i.e., Approach critical questions inductively also
INTENTIONAL LISTENING i.e., INTERPRETATION STRATEGIES FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS Entering world of the text links literary and historical studies - Key questions: What are readers expected to know? What are text characters expected to know? OBSERVATION / ANALYSIS: SUGGESTIONS Be accurate & specific. Give references. Go beyond quotation: label,
describe, probe. Say something about the text. Go beyond grammatical identification; probe significance. Be selective, but be thorough. INTENTIONAL LISTENING: DRAWING INFERENCES Actually draw inferences (vs. rephrase observtion) Draw warranted inferences Does evidence as stated support? Entertain various possible inferences Pursue beyond definition; deal with reasons and implications
Distinguish interpretation from application (they vs. we) INTENTIONAL LISTENING: OTHER INTERPRETERS Give adequate bibliography: author, title, page at least (view as person vs. not page) Interact respectfully with writer: evidence? reasoning? Use creatively. As lead to primary material. For interpretation, but also evaluation, application. INDUCTIVE BIBLE STUDY Observation
What did the writer say? Interpretation What did the writer mean? Evaluation What cross-cultural, trans-temporal instruction emerges? Application How should we then live? Contextual Hermeneutic Writer(s) Think Moves Purposeful Writing
Complex, Varied cf. Amos, Proverbs, Psalter, Gospels, Philemon 1. Discrete Units 2. Form & Genre 3. Structured 4. Canon Space - Time Barrier God Reader Listener Major Link w. Mind of writer
and God Written Text Writers Thoughts [& Gods Thoughts!] Ancient & Modern Observe (Partial - Indispensable) Implied Method Priority Intuitive Understanding Immediate, Partial,
Culture-conditioned EVALUATION - APPLICATION INTERPRETATION Truth as Interpreted Leviticus 11 Clean/unclean: 1) Covenant loyalty 2) Devotion to God 3) Diet 4) By contact E V A L U A T
I O N APPLICATION Truth as Evaluated Leviticus 11 Clean/unclean: 1) Covenant loyalty 2) Devotion to God 3) Not Diet 4) Not by contact 5) Esentially heart issue III. EVALUATION What does Scripture as a Whole Teach? Explanatory metaphors
The Divine Teacher Canonical dialogue Canonical round table INDUCTIVE EVALUATION: Evaluative Conclusions FROM EVIDENCE: CONTEXT BACKGROUND CANON TRADITION C O N C L U
D E Affirmation Exposition, extension Application Argumentation Revision Recension Other
EVALUATION Let Jesus Be the Judge. A. Hear the canonical dialogue Inspired diversity within essential unity B. Discern Scriptures direction Promise-fulfillment in Christ Import of New Covenant EVALUATION C. Evaluate from evidence ( interpret from evidence) D. Draw evaluative (vs.
interpretive) conclusions. Affirms, Assumes, Adopts Expands, Extends Applies, Appropriates Revises, Redirects Rescinds, Rejects BIBLICAL ROUND-TABLE Sponsored by The Father Enabled by The Spirit Ezekiel JESUS Matthew
Jeremiah MESSIAH Mark Hosea Luke Moderator Amos John Isaiah Paul Solomon Peter James David Bring Your Jude Passage & Moses Its Teaching Into the
Dialogue IV. APPLICATION How should we then live? A. Bases for applications B. Building applications BASES FOR APPLICATION Wesleyan quadrilateral SCRIPTURE Tradition Reason Experience Whole-Life Application Probe
WHOLE-LIFE APPLICATION PROBE Theology Education Psychology Aesthetics Anthropology Ethics Sociology Your passages Cosmology Medicine truth Science Economics Law Politics
Media Arts Entertainment BUILDING APPLICATIONS Abstract and Concrete Being and Doing Corporate and Individual Positive and Negative DETAILED TREATMENT OF INDIVIDUAL LITERARY STRUCTURES
Major Structural Relationship (MBS, 50-59; BSTW 2, 36-43.) 1. Primary Relationships (Semantic Relationships) a. Recurrence: repetition of same or similar terms, phrases, or themes. XX Example: XXX X X X XXX X recurrence of love in 1 John Yahwehs Knowing b. Contrast: association of things whose differences are stressed by the writer But, However
Blessing of Perishing of the Godly the Wicked 1 3 4 5 6 Examples: Psalm 1 (above): Recurring contrasts between Light and Darkness and between faith and unbelief in the Gospel of John. c. Comparison: association of things whose similarities are stressed by the writer. Like... as... Example: Book of Joel is structured by a comparison
between the locust plague and the Day of the Lord. d. Climax: movement toward a high point of culmination Implicit: Preparation/Rea lization Example: The book of Ezekiel Contrast reaches its climax in the closing (between the lower & the statement: The
name of the city higher pts.) is Yahweh is There! climaxingthe Often theme Causationof Yahwehs presence (and lack thereof in Jerusalem) e. Cruciality: employs the pivot, that occasions a radical reversal or change of direction (i.e., radical contrast associated with specific point). A vs. -A Example: The Book of Esther is structured around the pivot. Movement to
Actual destruction of destroy Mordecai Jews enemies and and the Jews (1-4) Implicit: exaltation of Mordecai (7-10) Causation and Esthers appeal to King Ahasuerus (5-6) Moves along a line involving the same item, theme or Contrast X and the Jews. issue, here the fate of Mordecai f. Concession: Gives unexpected consequence to an item which contrasts with an anticipated (and often unstated) consequence, i.e., A >> B vs. [-B].
Although, even though, in spite of the fact that... Example: Romans 5:8 We were Expected sinners Result: No one, (even though) including Christ, would die for us. Concession Contrast Unexpected Result: Christ died for us. (still)
g. Particularization: The movement from general to particular. Examples: Identificational Isaiah 1:1 -- Vision of Isaiah (general) Implicit: Preparation/ Isaiah 1:2-66:24 -- particulars of the Realization vision (general description, particular expression) Logical Book of Hebrews General claims regarding Christ, 1:1-4 (General)
Specific expansion of these general claims,1:5-13:21 (Particulars) Biographical / Geographical Book of Genesis Focus: entire human race, whole world 1 Focus: 1 man (Abraham) and 1 place (land of promise)
11 12 50 i. Causation - Movement from cause to effect, from reason to result. Examples: Logical - Book of Hebrews characterized by a number of instances of in which the movement from cause to effect is inferential, i.e.,totally in reasoning, e.g., Heb 5:1 - 7:28 give the basis for the logical inference/conclusion of 8:1 ff Since...then, so then... therefore... Hortatory - Book of Romans Theological argument re: justification by faith
Implicit: Preparation/ (Ch. 1-11) Realization (CAUSE) Consequent exhortations (Ch. 12-15) (EFFECT) Historical -- Book of Acts Coming of the Holy Spirit (ch.2) (CAUSE) Universal witness (chs. 3-28) (EFFECT)
j. Substantiation - movement from effect to cause Gives the reasons for, the basis of the preceding material Effect: the adversity and the rise to power of Joseph Gen. 37 - 49 Cause: Gods 50 Purpos e Genesis 50:19-20 explains the suffering of Joseph and the behavior of others around him finally or at
least in part in terms of the purpose of God. Effect: the lifting up of the Son for life John 3:14-15 Cause: the love of God in giving the Son 3:16 Key conjunctions: for, because, since often introduce the substantiation k. Instrumentation: Movement from means to end Two types of Instrumentation: +Statement of Purpose (In order that, so that) Example: The book of Deuteronomy repeatedly describes the purpose, or end, for obeying the law
(4:40; 5:29, 33, etc.). +Statement of Means (Through, by means of). Example: In the Book of Exodus, Moses is the means (or agent) of Yahwehs deliverance of his people. l. Preparation/Realization (or introduction): Background or setting for events or ideas. (vs. particularization or causation) Example: Account of Jeremiahs calling and commissioning to prophetic office is background/setting
(1:1-19) cf. - Genesis 1:1-2:3 For the description Jeremiahs work and oracles (2:1-52:34) 2:4-50:26. m. Summarization: Abridgment (summing up) either preceding or following a unit of material. Example: Judges 2:6-3:6 summarizes the individual accounts of the judges in 3:7- 16:13. n. Interrogation: Question or Problems
followed by the Answer or Solution Question Answer Example: Psalm 24: Who shall all Ascend? Problem Solution Example: Book of Ruth Naomis emptiness (problem) (solution) 12
4 harvest, child, fullness 2. Auxiliary Relationships (Rhetorical Relationships) a. Interchange: alternating of blocks of material in an A-B-A-B arrangement. Example: the alternating descriptions of the Northern and Southern kingdoms in the Books of Kings; of Hannah and her son Samuel and Eli and his sons in 1 Samuel. b. Inclusio: repetition of same phrase, etc., at the beginning and end of a unit, producing a bracket or envelop effect. Example: Mt. 19:30 // 20:16 first...last,
Ps. 103:1 // 22 Bless the Lord, O my soul! Caution: look for verbatim or nearly verbatim repetition. c. Chiasm: repetition of elements in an inverted (X) order: A-B-C-B1-A1 Example: Mk 8:35 lose...save...save...lose Named for Greek chi. d. Intercalation: insertion of one literary unit into another literary unit. Example: Genesis 38: the story of Judah and Tamar is intercalated into the story of Joseph and his brother Joseph and Bros.
37 Contrast Judah &Tamar 38 Joseph and Brothers Joseph faithful to God in all matters, esp. sexual purity and preservation of covenant people Judah promiscuous; & unconcerned about covenant line 39
50 LEVELS OF STRUCTURE Book Relationships Between Divisions Level Division Relationships between Sections Section Relations betw. Segments Segment Paragraph Level Rel. betw. Paragraphs between Clauses Levels of Structure BOOK LEVEL STRUCTURE
Cause The Good News of Persons Set Right With God by faith Romans 1- 11 Book Level Causation Book as a whole composed of major divisions Effect: Teaching Regarding the Transformed Mind Romans 12-16 Levels of Structure
DIVISION LEVEL STRUCTURE Humanitys Basic Problem and Gods Unique Solution Romans 1:18-5:21 Problem/Question Gods I ntent: I nterrogation Total Moral Renovation Romans 6:1-8:39 Solution/Answer Division as a whole composed of major sections Levels of Structure SECTION LEVEL STRUCTURE The Wrath of God on Human Unrighteousness
Romans 1:18 - 3:20 Problem (Sub-section/segment) I nterrogation with strong contrast Section as a whole composed of major segments or sub-sections Gods Unique Solution: Righteous Rescue by Faith Romans 3:21-5:21 Strongly contrasting solution (Sub-section/segment)
Levels of Structure SEGMENT LEVEL STRUCTURE Sin because of Grace? No! Romans 6:1-11 Qs #1 -Ans. Cause Conclusion: Give Y ourselves to God Romans 6:12-14 Effect #1 Sin because under grace? By no means! Wages & Gift Qs #2-Ans Concluding and Effect #2
Support Rom 6:23 Substantiation Segment as a whole composed of paragraphs
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