Nuclear Energy University Programs Fuel Cycle Technologies, Separations and Waste Forms Program Terry Todd, National Technical Director August 10, 2011 Separations and Waste Forms Mission Develop the next generation of fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that enable a sustainable fuel cycle, with minimal processing, waste generation and potential for material diversion Our job is to develop viable and economic technical options that will inform future decisions on the nuclear fuel cycle
Fuel Cycle R&D The Separations R&D program is developing options to support possible future selection of sustainable fuel cycles A broad range of separation technologies are being investigated to support modified open and full recycle options The current separations program is also focused on understanding the scientific fundamentals of separation methods The separations program is closely linked to waste form R&D activities
and interfaces regularly with fuels R&D to ensure coordination of approaches Separations Regent modeling and design for development of new extractants, electrochemical separations in ionic liquids, advanced voloxidation methods; direct nitration, halide volatility processes Transformational Separations Technologies Advanced Electrochemical Technologies U/TRU co-deposition, TRU and fission product drawdown, and metal/salt separations, on-line process monitoring and control Advanced Aqueous
Technologies On-line monitoring and transformational sampling approaches for aqueous processes, solvent degradation test loop, Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separations Simplified (one-step) An/Ln separations process, exploiting higher oxidation states of Am, chromatographic or alkaline-side separation, enhance the stability of dithiophosphinic extractants, utilize computational molecular design for new extraction ligands Sigma Team for Off-gas Capture and Immobilization Iodine and krypton loading on solid zeolite sorbents, methods for tritium capture, alternative sorbents for iodine and krypton Fundamental Science
and Methods Development Thermodynamics and kinetics of extraction systems, radiation chemistry effects and mechanisms, non-ideality in liquid-liquid systems, solvent extraction data to support model development Fuel Cycle Separations FY 2012 Focus Areas Waste form continuum model, pore diffusion model, first principle corrosion models Data for fundamental waste form models, effects of radionuclide decay on waste form solubility Modeling and Simulation Fundamental Waste Form Science Waste From Characterization
Metal and oxide waste behavior over geologic time scales Advanced Waste Form Processing Processing of alternative waste forms using advanced methods (e.g. cold crucible induction melting and spark plasma sintering) Alternative waste forms (e.g. ceramics, glass-ceramics, epsilon metal), and recycle of fuel components (Zr) Alternative Waste Forms Fuel Cycle Waste Forms FY 2012 Focus Areas Separations and Waste Forms Grand Challenges
Simplified single-step separation process for americium or transuranic elements (TRU) Near-zero radioactive off-gas emissions (an order of magnitude lower than risk-based regulations) Reduce waste volume (generation) for high-level , low level, and greater than class C wastes, by an order of magnitude Increase durability of high-level and low level wastes by an order of magnitude over current reference (glass) Research Needs Separations workshop was held July 27-28, 2011, in Washington DC on common areas of separations research across DOE programs (NE, NNSA, EM) Report anticipated by the end of August 2011 may identify new areas for R&D collaboration
- Chemistry and Speciation of the Actinides and Key Fission Products (Cs, Tc, I) - Design of Molecules and Materials with Selective Separation Properties - Scale-up of Separation Processes from Bench-Top to Plant - Interface issues between Separations and Waste Forms/Fuel Fabrication http://events.energetics.com/NuclearSeparationsTechnologyWorkshop/index.html Research Needs Experimental collection of fundamental data to characterize and quantify chemical processes of aqueous or electrochemical separation, validation of modeling approaches as well as to develop a better
understanding of separation methods Research Needs Interfacial electrochemistryDevelop a fundamental understanding of interfacial electrochemistry of actinides and fission product elements important in the fuel treatment process Research Needs Development of novel transformational separation technologies that have the potential of significantly reducing cost of processing
fuel while reducing proliferation risk and waste generation Research Needs Development of alternative wasteforms that have the potential of significantly increased waste loading (of fission products) and durability over borosilicate glass 137 Cs+1 Sr+2
90 137m Ba+2 90 +3 Y 137 Ba+2 90 Zr+4 Research Needs
Investigation of novel volatilization methods for complete or partial recycle of used fuel components Approaches could include oxidation/reduction methods, reactive gas reagents, or any combination of approaches to segregate used fuel components for recycle or disposal
* Prior studies have shown that serum TxB2 is higher in men than women Sex related differences in prostaglandin synthesis (PGI2, PGE2) made by endothelial cells from umbilical cord veins - cells from male babies made more of these two...
3.6 Order of Operations with Rational Numbers. Pgs 137-142. What's the answer? 6 + 4 x 4 - 3. Order of Operations. Hopefully you remember this: BEDMAS. Brackets, Exponents, Divide, Multiply, Add, Subtract. B - Do the operations in brackets...
Most kitchen accidents are knife related. The safe use of knives is imperative for obvious reasons. Always. Use the right knife for the job. Many knife injuries occur when laziness induces us to use the knife at hand rather than...
Narrative in Painting Narrative in Painting Arena Chapel, Giotto di Bondone 1305 Arena Chapel, Giotto di Bondone 1305 Cardsharps Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio 1594 Raft of the Medusa Théodore Géricault 1818 Raft of the Medusa sketch Théodore Géricault 1819 Old...
A program is nothing more than a logical sequence of instructions to a machine to accomplish a specific task. History of Programming Languages It is generally agreed that the first major language for computers was FORTRAN (an acronym for FORmula...