Nursing theorists - intranet.tdmu.edu.ua

Nursing theorists - intranet.tdmu.edu.ua

Nursing Theorists Week 11 and 12 Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 Definitions Theory- a set of related statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way Concept-a mental idea of a phenomenon Construct- a phenomena that cannot be observed and must be

inferred Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 Definitions Proposition- a statement of relationship between concepts Conceptual model- made up of concepts and propositions Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20

Nursing Theorists Florence Nightingale, Hildegard Peplau, Virginia Henderson, Fay Abdella, Ida Jean Orlando, Dorothy Johnson, Martha Rogers, Dorothea Orem, Imogene King, Betty Neuman, Sister Calista Roy, Jean Watson, Rosemary Rizzo Parse, Madeleine Leininger, Patricia Benner Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm

Person Recipient of care, including physical, spiritual, psychological, and sociocultural components Individual, family, or community Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm Environment

All internal and external conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the person Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm Health Degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 Concepts in the nursing metaparadigm Nursing Actions, characteristics and attributes of person giving care Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 Florence Nightingale

Environmental First Theory nursing theorist 5 components of environment Unsanitary conditions posed health hazard (Notes on Nursing, 1859) ventilation, light, warmth, effluvia, noise External influences can prevent, suppress or contribute to disease or death

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 Nightingales Concepts Person Patient who is acted on by nurse Affected by environment Has reparative powers Environment Foundation of theory. Included everything, physical, psychological,

and social Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 1 Nightingales Concepts Health Maintaining well-being by using a persons powers

Maintained by control of environment Nursing Provided fresh air, warmth, cleanliness, good diet, quiet to facilitate persons reparative process Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 1 Hildegard Peplau Interpersonal Relations Model Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD

02/07/20 1 Hildegard Peplau Interpersonal Relations Model Based on psychodynamic nursing using an understanding of ones own behavior to help others identify their difficulties

Applies principles of human relations Patient has a felt need Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 1 Peplaus Concepts Person An individual; a developing organism who tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs Lives in instable equilibrium Environment- Not defined

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 1 Peplaus Concepts Health Implies forward movement of the personality and human processes toward creative, constructive, productive, personal, and community living Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20

1 Peplaus Concepts Nursing A significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process that functions cooperatively with others to make health possible Involves problem-solving Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 1 Virginia Henderson

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 1 Virginia Henderson The Nature of Nursing The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge. Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD

02/07/20 1 Virginia Henderson And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible. She must in a sense, get inside the skin of each of her patients in order to know what he needs. Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 1 Virginia Henderson She is temporarily the

consciousness of the unconscious, the love of life for the suicidal, the leg of the amputee, the eyes of the newly blind, a means of locomotion for the infant, knowledge and confidence for the young mother, the Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 2 Fay Abdella- Topology of 21 Nursing Problems Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD

02/07/20 2 Fay Abdella Topology of 21 Nursing Problems A list of 21 nursing problems Problems are in 3 categories Condition presented or faced by

the patient or family. physical, social and emotional The nurse must be a good problem solver Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 2 Abdellas Concepts Nursing A helping profession A comprehensive service to meet

patients needs Increases or restores self-help ability Uses 21 problems to guide nursing care Health Excludes illness No unmet needs and no actual or anticipated impairments Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 2 Abdellas Concepts

Person One who has physical, emotional, or social needs The recipient of nursing care. Environment Did not discuss much Includes room, home, and community Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 2 Ida Jean Orlando Deliberative Nursing Process Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD

02/07/20 2 Ida Jean Orlando Deliberative Nursing Process The deliberative nursing process is set in motion by the patients behavior All behavior may represent a cry for help. Patients behavior can be verbal or non-verbal. The nurse reacts to patients behavior and forms basis for determining nurses acts.

Perception, thought, feeling Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 2 Ida Jean Orlando Deliberative Nursing Process Nurses actions should be deliberative, rather than automatic Deliberative actions explore the meaning and relevance of an action.

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 2 Dorothy Johnson Behavioral Systems Model Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 2 Dorothy Johnson Behavioral Systems Model

The person is a behavioral system comprised of a set of organized, interactive, interdependent, and integrated subsystems Constancy is maintained through biological, psychological, and sociological factors. Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 2 Dorothy Johnson Behavioral Systems Model

A steady state is maintained through adjusting and adapting to internal and external forces. Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 3 Johnsons 7 Subsystems Affiliative subsystem

Dependency helping or nuturing Ingestive social bonds food intake Eliminative excretion

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 3 Dorothy Johnson Behavioral Systems Model 7 Sub Systems Sexual Agressive

procreation and gratification self-protection and preservation Achievement efforts to gain mastery and control Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 3 Johnsons Concepts Person

A behavioral system comprised of subsystems constantly trying to maintain a steady state Environment Not specifically defined but does say there is an internal and external environment Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 3 Dorothy Johnson

Behavioral Systems Model Health Balance and stability. Nursing External regulatory force that is indicated only when there is instability. Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20

3 Martha Rogers Unitary Human Beings Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 3 Martha Rogers Unitary Human Beings Energy fields

Fundamental unity of things that are unique, dynamic, open, and infinite Unitary man and environmental field Universe of open systems Energy fields are open, infinite, and interactive Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 3 Martha Rogers Unitary Human

Beings Pattern Characteristic of energy field A wave that changes, becomes complex and diverse Four dimensionality A nonlinear domain with out time or space Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 3 Rogers Definitions Integrality

Continuous and mutual interaction between man and environment Resonancy Continuous change longer to shorter wave patterns in human and environmental fields Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 3

Martha Rogers Unitary Human Beings Helicy Continuous, probabilistic, increasing diversity of the human and envrionmental fields. Characterized by nonrepeating rhymicities Change Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD

02/07/20 3 Dorothea Orem Self-Care Model Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4 Dorothea Orem Self-Care Model Self-care comprises those activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain person well-being

Self care agency is the individuals ability to perform self care activities Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4 Dorothea Orem Self-Care Model Self- care deficit occurs when the person cannot carry out self-care

The nurse then meets the selfcare needs by acting or doing for;guiding, teaching, supporting or providing the environment to promote patients ability Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4 Dorothea Orem Self-Care Model Wholly compensatory nursing system

Partially compensatory Patient dependent Patient can meet some needs but needs nursing assistance Supportive educative Patient can meet self care requisites, but needs assistance with decision making or knowledge Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4

Imogene King Goal Attainment Theory Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4 Imogene King Goal Attainment Theory Open systems framework Human beings are open systems in

constant interaction with the environment Personal System individual; perception, self, growth, development, time space, body image Interpersonal Society Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4 Imogene King Goal Attainment Theory

Personal System Interpersonal Individual; perception, self, growth, development, time space, body image Socialization; interaction, communication and transaction Society Family, religious groups, schools, work, peers

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4 Imogene King Goal Attainment Theory The nurse and patient mutually communicate, establish goals and take action to attain goals Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20

4 Imogene King Goal Attainment Theory Each individual brings a different set of values, ideas, attitudes, perceptions to exchange Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4 Betty Neuman Systems Model

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 4 Betty Neuman Health Care Systems Model The person is a complete system, with interrelated parts maintains balance and harmony between internal and external environment by adjusting to stress and defending against tensionproducing stimuli Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD

02/07/20 5 Betty Neuman Health Care Systems Model Focuses on stress and stress reduction Primarily concerned with effects of stress on health Stressors are any forces that alter the systems stability

Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5 Betty Neuman Health Care Systems Model Flexible lines of resistance Normal line of resistance

Surround basic core Internal factors that help defend against stressors Normal adaptation state Flexible line of defense Protective barrier, changing, affected by variables Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5 Betty Neuman Systems Model

Wellness is equilibrium Nursing interventions are activites to: strengthen flexible lines of defense strengthen resistence to stressors maintain adaptation Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5 Sister Calista Roy

Adaptation Model Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5 Sister Calista Roy Adaptation Model Five Interrelated Essential Elements Patiency- The person receiving care Goal of nursing- Adapting to change Health-Being and becoming a whole person Environment Direction of nursing activities

Facilitating adaptation Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5 Sister Calista Roy Adaptation Model The person is an open adaptive system with input (stimuli), who adapts by processes or control mechanisms (throughput) The output can be either adaptive responses or

ineffective responses Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5 Jean Watson Philosophy and Science of Caring Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5 Jean Watson Philosophy and Science of Caring

Caring can be demonstrated and practiced Caring consists of carative factors Caring promotes growth A caring environment accepts a person as he is and looks to what the person may become Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5

Jean Watson Philosophy and Science of Caring A caring environment offers development of potential Caring promotes health better than curing Caring is central to nursing Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 5

Watsons 10 Carative Factors Forming humanisticaltruistic value system Instilling faith-hope Cultivating sensitivity to self and others Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 6 Watsons 10 Carative Factors

Developing helping-trust relationship Promoting expression of feelings Using problem-solving for decision making Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 6 Watsons 10 Carative Factors

Promoting teaching-learning Promoting supportive environment Assisting with gratification of human needs Allowing for existentialphenomenological forces Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 6 Watsons

Concepts Person Human being to be valued, cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted Environment Society Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20

6 Jean Watson Philosophy and Science of Caring Health Complete physical, mental and social well-being and functioning Nursing Concerned with promoting and

restoring health, preventing illness Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 6 Rosemary Parse Human Becoming Theory Human Becoming Theory includes Totality Paradigm Man is a combination of biological, psychological, sociological and spiritual

factors Simultaneity Paradigm Man is a unitary being in continuous, mutual interaction with environment Originally Man-Living-Health Theory Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 6 Parses Three Principles

Meaning Mans reality is given meaning through lived experiences Man and environment cocreate Rhythmicity Man and environment cocreate ( imaging, valuing, languaging) in rhythmical patterns Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD

02/07/20 6 Parses Three Principles Cotranscendence Refers to reaching out and beyond the limits that a person sets One constantly transforms Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 6

Rosemary Parse Human BecomingTheory Person Open being who is more than and different from the sum of the parts Environment Everything in the person and his experiences

Inseparable, complimentary to and evolving with Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 6 Rosemary Parse Human BecomingTheory Health Open process of being and becoming. Involves synthesis of values

Nursing A human science and art that uses an abstract body of knowledge to serve people Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 6 Madeleine Leininger Culture Care Diversity and Universality

Based on transcultural nursing, whose goal is to provide care congruent with cultural values, beliefs, and practices Sunrise model consists of 4 levels that provide a base of knowledge for delivering cultural congruent care Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 7 Madeleine Leininger Culture Care Diversity Modes of nursing action

Cultural care preservation Cultural care accommodation help maintain or preserve health, recover from illness, or face death help adapt to or negotiate for a beneficial health status, or face death Cultural care re-patterning help restructure or change lifestyles that

are culturally meaningful Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 7 Patricia Benner From Novice to Expert Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 7 Patricia Benner From Novice to Expert

Described 5 levels of nursing experience and developed exemplars and paradigm cases to illustrate each level Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 7 Patricia Benner From Novice to Expert Levels reflect:

movement from reliance on past abstract principles to the use of past concrete experience as paradigms change in perception of situation as a complete whole in which certain parts are relevant Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 7 Patricia Benner From Novice to Expert

Novice Advanced beginner Competent Proficient Expert Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 7 Importance of Theoretical Frameworks

Foundation of any profession is the development of a specialized body of knowledge. Theories should be developed in nursing, not borrow theories form other disciplines Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 7 Next Steps Responsibility of nurses to know and understand theorists Critically analyze theoretical

frameworks Gloria A. Hagopian, RN, EdD 02/07/20 7

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