NUTRIENT CYCLE NOTES The biogeochemical cycles: Carbon, Nitrogen, Water, and Phosphorus BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES CONNECT LIVING THINGS TO THE EARTH The four chemicals that make up 95% of living things Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen
These elements are constantly being cycled through living and non-living organic matter NUTRIENT CYCLES WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS Energy flows through an ecosystem and nutrients cycle within an ecosystem. Nutrients are substances such as water, carbon and nitrogen which are necessary for the survival of living things.
1. NUTRIENT CYCLES WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS Scientists create models to represent natural interactions in the environment which make it easier to study and understand the 'big picture' without having to physically measure an entire ecosystem. Diagrams of the nutrient cycles could be considered models of the actual cycles as they occur in nature. The use of models also allows scientists to
make predictions about how a particular event might effect an ecosystem without having to expose the real ecosystem to that event. For example, how might the loss of trees, and therefore transpiration, affect rainfall in a particular ecosystem? NUTRIENT CYCLES WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS 2. In an Ecosystem the Three Primary Nutrient Cycles: A. The Water Cycle B. The Carbon Cycle
C. The Nitrogen Cycle D. The Phosphorus Cycle THE WATER (HYDROLOGIC CYCLE) The movement of water between different reservoirs on the earth, under ground and in the atmosphere is known as the water cycle. 1. To a large degree, availability of water determines the diversity of organisms in an ecosystem.
A. Water is crucial to Life. Cells contain 70 - 90 % water, and water provides the aqueous environment in which most of life's reactions occur. THE WATER (HYDROLOGIC CYCLE) 2. The availability of WATER is one of the key factors that regulates the productivity of terrestrial (land) ecosystems. 3. Bodies of water such as lakes, rivers, streams, and the oceans contain a substantial percentage of the Earths
water. The atmosphere also contains water in the form of: water vapor some water found below ground known as ground water. THE WATER (HYDROLOGIC CYCLE) Processes of the Water Cycle: A. EVAPORATION: from lakes, rivers, and oceans. B. TRANSPIRATION: from plants
and trees. C. CONDENSATION: Cloud Formation D. PRECIPITATION: Rain, Snow, Sleet, Hail. E. RUN OFF, or RETURNED back into the Cycle. THE CARBON CYCLE 1. Together, photosynthesis and cellular respiration
form the basis of the carbon cycle. Carbon is found in all of the major macromolecules (carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins and lipids) which are necessary for all living systems. 2. The Earth's atmosphere contains carbon in the form
of carbon dioxide (CO2). There are five major reservoirs of carbon: the atmosphere the terrestrial biosphere oceans ocean sediments and The earth's interior. THE CARBON CYCLE- PROCESS Photosynthesis: During photosynthesis, plants and other
autotrophs use CO2 along with water and solar energy, to build organic molecules (carbohydrates), thus storing the carbon for themselves and other organisms. Cellular Respiration: Both autotrophs and heterotrophs use oxygen to break down carbohydrates during cellular respiration. Consumers obtain energy-rich molecules that contain carbon by eating plants and animals. Volcanic Eruptions and geothermal vents: carbon from deep within the earth's interior is brought back to the surface during eruptions of steam, gasses and lava
THE CARBON CYCLE-PROCESSES Decomposition: Carbon is returned to the environment through decomposers and cellular respiration (breathing releases CO2 back to the atmosphere). Combustion: When wood or fossil fuels are burned, the chemical reaction releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere Deposition: Coal, petroleum, and calcium carbonate rock are deposited in sediment and underground. Calcium carbonate deposits are eroded by water to form carbon dioxide. Large amounts of carbon are tied up in wood, only returning to the atmosphere when wood is burned.
THE CARBON CYCLE THE NITROGEN CYCLE 1) ALL organisms need nitrogen, an important nutrient, to make proteins and nucleic acids. 2) Most nitrogen is found in the atmosphere (80%) as N2, and most living things cannot use it. ALL organisms rely on the actions of bacteria that are able to transform nitrogen gas into a usable form.
THE NITROGEN CYCLE 3) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Cyanobacteria and Rhizobium) play a key role in the nitrogen cycle. They live in the soil and in the roots of some kinds of plants, such as beans, peas, clover, and alfalfa. These bacteria have enzymes that can break the atmospheric N2 bonds. Nitrogen atoms are then free to bond with hydrogen atoms to form Ammonia (NH3). THE NITROGEN CYCLEPROCESSES
NITROGEN FIXATION is the conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia; Ammonia can be absorbed by plants from the soil, and used to make proteins, and enter the food web for consumers. ASSIMILATION: Consumers obtain nitrogen from the plants and animals they eat by digesting the food's proteins and using it to make their own proteins THE NITROGEN CYCLEPROCESSES AMMONIFICATION: Decomposers return the nitrogen from the remains of dead plants and animals back to the soil. Nitrogen is
also returned from animal and plant waste by decomposers (dung, urine, leaves and bark).Through ammonification, nitrogen that would be lost, is recycled back into the ecosystem. DENITRIFICATION: Denitrification occurs when anaerobic bacteria (chemoautotrophs) break down nitrates and release nitrogen gas back into the atmosphere. THE NITROGEN CYCLEPROCESSES NITRIFICATION: Bacteria convert ammonia into nitrogen compounds that plants can utilize more easily
Autotrophs (plants) are therefore DEPENDENT on nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and all other organisms are DEPENDENT on autotrophs! THE NITROGEN CYCLE THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Phosphorus is found in sedimentary rock NOT in the atmosphere Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for animals and plants.
It plays a critical role in cell development and is a key component of molecules that store energy (ATP), DNA, and Lipids (fats and oils). THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Processes of the Phosphorous Cycle A. Erosion: Of the rocks caused by rainfall and streams into the soil B. Absorption: Plants absorb the phosphorous and makes organic compounds. Animals may eat the
plants. C. Decomposition: Phosphorous is returned to the soil as the animal and plants decay D. To the ocean: Phosphorous in soil will dissolve in water, flowing to the ocean
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