Nutrition

Nutrition

Nutrition Mr. Ramos Lesson 1: Following the Dietary Guidelines Objectives Identify types and sources of nutrients. Describe how to use the Dietary Guidelines. Discuss how to use the Food Guide Pyramid. Discuss how to distinguish between foods that are healthful and those that do not contain many nutrients. Types of Nutrients

Food is the bodys source of energy Energy in food is measured in units called calories or Calories. The body uses nutrients to build and maintain tissues, help with body processes, or provide energy. 6 Types of Nutrients Proteins Growth & Repair Body

Animal products, such as meat & eggs offer complete proteins Amino acids make proteins 6 Types of Nutrients Carbohydrates Provide the main source of energy for the body Simple carbohydrates are sugars: fruit & milk Complex carbohydrates are starches: bread, rice, cereal, & potatoes. 6 Types of Nutrients Fats Provide long term energy storage

Absorbs certain vitamins Help maintain healthy hair & skin Saturated fats are solid at room temperature Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature 6 Types of Nutrients Vitamins Control processes in the body Vitamin C helps your heart & muscles Vitamin C can be found in fruits, meat, & eggs 6 Types of Nutrients Minerals Involved in many body activities

Iron is essential for building blood & muscle Calcium helps build strong bones 6 Types of Nutrients Water Regulates body temperature Helps eliminate waste Chemical processes in the body occur in water 6 8 Ounces of water daily Dietary Guidelines: You are what you eat

Nutrition is the process by which the body takes in and uses food. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are a set of diet & lifestyle recommendations for healthy Americans ages two & older. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) wrote the Dietary Guidelines. Aim for fitness Build a healthy base Choose sensibly Aim for Fitness Aim for a healthful weight Eat smaller meals

Reduce the risk of diabetes & heart disease Consume meals rich in vitamins & minerals, & low in saturated fats Be physically active each day 60 minutes of moderate activity each day Walk, swim, skate, etc. Build a Healthy Base Use the food guide pyramid Choose a variety of grains Good source of fiber

Choose a variety of fruits & vegetables Good source of fiber Keep food safe to eat Refrigerate meat, dairy, & egg products Choose Sensibly

Avoid foods that are high in fats, sugars, & salts. Choose a diet low in saturated fats & cholesterol & moderate in total fat Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugar. Choose and prepare foods with less salt. Do not drink alcohol. The Food Guide Pyramid Food Guide Pyramid helps you choose healthier food.

Foods at the bottom of the pyramid are more important. Limit foods at the top of the pyramid Food Groups Servings Per Day One Serving Equals Milk, Yogurt, & Cheese Group 2-3 1 cup milk, 1 cup yogurt I.5 ounces natural cheese 2 ounces processed cheese

Meat, Poulty, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, & Nut Group 2-3 2-3 ounces of cooked lean meat, poulty, or fish cup of dry beans 1 egg 2 tablespoons peanut butter Fruit Group 2-4 1 medium apple, banana, or orange

cup cooked, canned, or raw chopped fruit cup 100% fruit juice Vegetable Group 3-5 1 cup raw, leafy vegetables cup other cooked or chopped raw vegetables cup 100% vegetable juice Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group 6-11

1 slice of bread or bagel, regular size 1 ounce ready to eat cereal cup cooked cereal, rice, or pasta Food Choices Limit foods that do not contain many nutrients: chips, cookies, candies, & ice-cream. Go easy on oils, salad dressings, & buttery spreads.

Cut back on canned foods, instant soups, & lunch meals, such as bologna & ham. These foods contain a lot of sodium. Increase your fiber intake by eating whole grain breads. Vitamin What it does Some sources Vitamin A Maintains healthy teeth, skin, & eyes

Milk, cheese, liver, carrots, apricots, cantaloupe, sweet potatoes, dark green leafy vegetables B vitamins Support heart, nerve cells, brain, & blood Lean meats, poulty, fish, nuts, eggs, some packaged bread Vitamin C Promotes healthy teeth & gums and helps to heal wounds

Citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli, collard and mustard greens Vitamin D Helps the body absorb calcium, essential for healthy Milk, cheese, butter, fish, some cereals, sunlight Vitamin E Slows again and supports formation of red blood cells

Wheat germ, corn, nuts, vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables. Mineral What it does Some sources Iron Builds muscles and transports oxygen to blood Beef, poulty, seafood, spinach, whole grains

Calcium Promotes strong teeth and bones Milk, tofu, broccoli, some juices and cereals Magnesium Assists nerves and muscles Nuts, beans, dark green vegetables Zinc Heals wounds and aids growth

Meat, liver, eggs, wheat germ, whole grains Lesson 2: Improving Your Eating Habits Objectives Demonstrate how to analyze a food label to evaluate and compare food choices. List and analyze the influences on food choices. Describe how to plan healthful meals in a variety of settings. Explain how to plan, shop for, and prepare healthful meals and snacks. Analyzing Food Labels

All processed food packages must have a Nutrition Facts Panel. A processed food is a food that has been specially treated or changed. Examples: crackers, cookies, frozen dinners, and macaroni & cheese. A Nutrition Facts Panel is a label that provides information about the calories and nutrients that the food contains. Reading a Nutrition Facts

Panel Analyzing Food Labels Trans fats are harmful fats found in hydrogenated, or partially solidified, oils such as margarine and shortening. Chips, cookies, crackers, & cakes usually have trans fats, which may provide even more cholesterol than saturated fats. Influences on Your Food Choices Availability teens choose foods that are available to them

Family Influence culture, background, & religion play a role in what people eat Health Benefits people avoid certain foods if theyre allergic, or they may eat broccoli & other high calcium foods to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis Influences on Your Food Choices Situation people choose different foods depending on who they are with

Mood people choose certain foods when they are bored, happy, depressed, or angry Body Image worrying about being too fat or too skinny may cause people to choose certain foods over others Influences on Your Food Choices Cost the amount of money people have & the price of the food determines what they will buy

Media people are influenced to eat what they see in the media Vegetarian lifestyle vegetarians avoid red meat, chicken, and fish. Vegan lifestyle vegans reject all animal products, such as dairy, eggs, and honey. Making Responsible Shopping Choices Pay attention to Nutrition Facts Panel &

avoid large quantities of fat, sugar, & sodium. Foods labeled fat free have less than of a gram of fat per serving. Foods labeled low fat have 3 grams of fat or less. Making Responsible Shopping Choices Try shopping at stores that sell bulk foods. Bulk foods are

often cheaper than foods that come in small packages. Avoid foods that come in smaller packages. At grocery stores, the more expensive products are usually placed at eye level. Planning Healthful Meals Provide steamed vegetables as a side dish.

Use skim or 1% milk for cereal & hot chocolate. Avoid overuse of salt by adding herbs, such as rosemary, oregano, or basil to pasta or rice. Order baked or broiled food instead of fried food. Choose fruit or sorbet for dessert instead of ice cream. The Role of Supplements

You can get some of the important vitamins and minerals you need by eating foods that are fortified. To fortify is to add vitamins or minerals to a food. Example: Most milk is fortified with vitamin D. Vitamin D helps the body absorb Calcium. The Role of Supplements A nutritional supplement is a nonfood pill, powder, or liquid that contains vitamins, minerals, or other healthful substances that some people want to add to their diet.

Nutrition Math Activity 1. How many calories are in 4 cookies? 2. How many calories are in the whole bag of cookies? 3. How many calories are in 12 cookies?

4. How much total fat is in 4 cookies? 5. How much total fat is in the whole bag of cookies? 6. How much total fat is in 12 cookies? Nutrition Math Activity 7. How many grams of protein

are in 4 cookies? 8. How many grams of protein are in the whole bag of cookies? 9. How many grams of protein are in 12 cookies? 10. How much sodium is in 4 cookies?

11. How much sodium is in the whole bag of cookies? 12. How much sodium is in 12 cookies? Lesson 3: Foodborne Illnesses Objectives: Describe foodborne illnesses and their sources. Identify the symptoms and treatments of foodborne illnesses.

Discuss how to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. Foodborne Illnesses A foodborne illness is an illness caused by consuming foods or beverages that have been contaminated with pathogens or toxins produced by pathogens. Bacteria are tiny one celled organisms. Some bacteria are beneficial and others cause disease.

Foodborne Illnesses Bacteria can contaminate food. To contaminate is to make dirty or impure. Bacteria can spread easily from food to your hands or to other foods. Bacteria can be destroyed through pasteurization.

Pasteurization is a process by which a food or liquid is heated to kill harmful organisms. Sources of Foodborne Illnesses Bacteria Illness Sources Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacteriosis

Contaminated water, raw or undercooked meat Clostridium botulinum Botulism Improperly canned food, homecanned vegetables, smoked or raw fish, honey or corn syrup. Escherichia coli E. coli infection Raw or rare ground beef, unpasteurized apple juice or cider, contaminated water.

Listeria monocytogenes Listeriosis Hot dogs, cold cuts, soft cheese, unpasteurized milk Salmonella Salmonellosis Raw or undercooked eggs or poultry, owning a pet iguana, turtle, or lizard Shigella Shigellosis

Contaminated water, improper food handling, especially of salads or leafy vegetables Staphylococcus aureus S. aureus food poisoning Food handling by someone with a skin infection, keeping food at room temperature. Symptoms & Treatment for Foodborne Illnesses Fever, nausea, vomiting, cramps, & diarrhea are typical

symptoms of foodborne illness. You should rest and drink plenty of fluids. How Foodborne Illnesses Spread Its easy to transfer bacteria from one food to another, especially if you use the same knife or cutting board to prepare different foods without washing them in between. Hygiene is healthful behaviors, such as cleanliness, that promote health & prevent disease.

Example: washing hands after using bathroom How Foodborne Illnesses Spread More foodborne illnesses occur in the summer, when the air is warm and bacteria grow more quickly, than in any other season. Select your cold & frozen foods last when grocery shopping. Rinse the top of cans and the can opener as well.

Keeping Food Safe Wash your hands before preparing food with soap for at least 20 seconds. Dont chop salads on the same cutting board you used for raw meat without washing the board first. Always wash fruits & vegetables before eating them. Keeping Food Safe

Store meats and fish in heavy plastic containers in the refrigerator so that the juices dont drip onto other foods. Keep raw poultry, fish, eggs, and meat away from other foods, utensils, or plates. Keeping Food Safe Always cook foods well. Microwaves do not heat food evenly, so stop the microwave & stir the food.

Use a microwave-safe container & loosely covered. This produces steam inside the container to kill bacteria. Keeping Food Safe Freeze all fish or meats that you cannot use in a few days. Cut large chunks of meat into slices. Bacteria can grow in big portions of food because they take long to cool

Defrost food in the microwave or fridge; do not leave food to defrost on counter. Use leftovers in fridge within 3 to 4 days. Never leave meat, poultry, fish, or eggs at room temperature for more than two hours, or one hour if temperature is 90F or above. Bacteria grow quickly when temperature is between 40F and 140F. Lesson 4: Maintaining a Healthful Weight

Objectives: Determine healthful weight and body composition. Assess the health risk associated with being overweight or underweight. Identify strategies for healthful weight management. Healthful Weight Some tests are not 100% accurate The healthful weight range for a person depends on many factors: height, build, muscle mass, &

fat. Body composition is the percentage of fat tissue and lean tissue in the body. Skin-fold measurement Test Electrical Devices Finding Your Healthful Weight A Height-Weight Chart can determine if your weight falls within a healthful range.

However, these charts do not take into account whether most of your weight is from fat or muscle. Healthfyl Weight: Body Mass Index The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a formula used to determine whether a persons body weight is healthful. There is a BMI scale for adults, children & teens ages 2 to 20. Some people whom the BMI classifies as overweight may simply have more muscle tissue than others and may not be

unhealthy. Underweight BMI = under 5% BMI Appropriate BMI = 5% - 85% BMI Overweight BMI = 85% - 95% BMI Some Some tests tests are not

are not 100% 100% accurate accurate Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI for Boys & Girls Avoiding Extremes Being too fat or too thin can pose health risks. Excess calories result in weight gain.

Female teens need about 2,200 Calories/day. Male teens need about 2,800 Calories/day. About 60% of these calories meet the bodys basic needs, such as tissue growth & heart & lung function. Avoiding Extremes: Overweight Being overweight means weighing more than is healthful

for your height according to set standards. Overweight adult has a BMI of 25 to 29.9 Obesity is having a BMI of 30 or more. Overweight & obese individuals are at greater risks for heart disease, arthritis, high blood pressure, diabetes, and some cancers. Emotional State of Being Overweight

Overweight Problems Low self esteem Bullying & Teasing Avoid Social Gatherings Hard time making friends Avoiding Extremes: Underweight Underweight is weighing less than is healthful for your height according to set standards. Some teens may be slightly underweight because their

bodies are developing more slowly than those of their peers. Those who do not consume enough calories might become ill more often than others their age, & have a poor immune system. Managing Your Weight Weight management is a combination of healthful eating and regular physical activity. Metabolism is the process by which the body converts food

to energy. Physical activity increases your metabolism. Managing Your Weight: Losing Weight What to do if you are overweight Eat smaller portions Eat a nutritious breakfast Dont skip meals or rely on snacks for energy Aim for a loss of - 2 pounds per week Perform physical activity for at least 1 hr each day Use stairs instead of elevator

Managing Your Weight: Gaining Weight What to do if you are underweight Aim for highest number of servings recommended from each food group in the Food Guide Pyramid Choose calorie-rich foods in each food group Eat three meals a day & include 2 or 3 healthful snacks in between Ask your doctor if you should drink a liquid supplement. Some shakes & smoothies can give you extra calories. Fad Diets Fad diets promise quick results but usually do not work.

Fad diets often lead to more weight gain. Remember that healthful weight loss or gain takes time, involves eating right, and exercising. Lesson 5 Recognizing Eating Disorders Objectives: Discuss what body image is and what influences it. Identify signs and symptoms of eating disorders. Describe prevention and treatment for eating

disorders. Your Body Image Body image is the way a person feels about his or her appearance and perceives that others view him or her. Factors that affect body image include opinions, culture, and the media. Television, movies, and magazines sometimes portray the ideal female as much thinner and the ideal male as much leaner.

Your Body Image The average female model is 23% thinner than the average American female. Females are more likely to dislike their bodies than males. Some male teens have a negative body image, and they take physical activity & exercise to an extreme. Eating Disorders

An eating disorder is an emotional disorder in which a person chooses harmful eating patterns. More common in women than men. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person starves himself or herself and has a weight of 15% or more below normal. Risks: 1. Malnutrition 2. Organ damage 3. Irregular heartbeats 4. Fatigue 5. Stomach pain 6. Constipation 7. Yellow skin

8. Hair loss 9. Growth of excess body hair 10. Absence of menstruation Eating Disorders Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person eats a great deal of food in a short period and then rids the body of the food. Purging, laxatives, or diuretics People who have bulimia may be at a healthful weight, unlike people with anorexia.

Risks: 1. Damaged tooth enamel 2. Swollen cheek/face 3. Sore gums 4. Dry & brittle hair 5. Irregular bowl movements 6. Heartburn 7. Stomach cramps 8. Increase in blood pressure 9. Damage to organs 10.Rupture of esophagus Eating Disorders Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder in which a person engages in uncontrollable eating.

They may eat in secret even if they are not hungry. No purge Up to 40% of people who are obese may have binge eating disorders. Risks: 1. Overweight or obesity 2. Premature heart disease 3. High blood pressure 4. Diabetes 5. Certain cancers

Warning Signs Each disorder is associated with a specific behavior. Teens with anorexia may make excuses to avoid meals. Teens with bulimia may excuse themselves to go to the bathroom after meals. Teens with binge eating disorder eat regularly and gain excessive amount of weight.

Treatment for Teens with Eating Disorders If you suspect that you or a friend has an eating disorder, talk to a parent, guardian, or health professional as soon as possible. Medical doctors may treat physical ailments associated with the disorder. Mental health professional may help the victim discover the source of the problem.

People with eating disorders may access the Web site of the National Eating Disorder Organization for information and help. Treatment for Teens with Eating Disorders Registered dietitians have knowledge of eating disorders and experience with helping people who have them. Registered dietitians can make responsible eating decisions. Developing a Positive Body Image

Appreciate what your body can do Running, laughing, and dreaming Carry yourself with a sense of pride People will respect you if you have confidence Wear clothes that make you feel good about your body Treat your body well Listen to music, dance, and take scented baths

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