Unit 3 Learning and Development Day 1 Conditioning Because Sometimes it Takes years to be this Objectives Identify two types of
Conditioning, and their Inventors Understand the Four Elements to Classical Conditioning Compare Reinforcement Operant Conditioning
Behavior Modification Reinforcement Punishment Learned Helplessness Remind Me What is Psychology? What is Biology? How does it relate to Psychology?
How much are we a product of our Biology? What does that phrase Nature Vs. Nurture mean? Today we look at the nonbiological source of who we An Example Suppose I give you a list of terms and phrases How do you know which ones to write down?
How did you gain that knowledge? What happens if I break that pattern? As an experiment, this unit, the important things will be in WHITE Knowledge What weUpload just began, and will have to practice for this unit at least, is an example of
Learning Process by which we adapt to changing conditions of our environment Stimulus has an effect on us Not merely the acquiring of knowledge, but the retention of that knowledge TO Russia With
In 1901 a Pavlov Russian Psychologist by the name of Ivan Pavlov ( ) ) conducted an experiment with dogs. Ivan observed that dogs like meat. When presented with meat, dogs salivate (drool) Pavlov played a ticking metronome every day when he fed his dogs meat.
One of Pavlovs Dogs, Preserved at the Pavlovian Museum, TO Russia With Pavlov What Pavlov found is that certain responses can be conditioned in animals ( ) including humans) This is called Classical
Conditioning A learning process where a new response to a previously neutral stimulus is created Sometimes called Pavlovian Response Classical Conditioning 101 In Order to be Pavlovian, it requires: 1) Unconditioned Stimulus
2) Unconditioned Response 3) Neutral Stimulus Those, if used correctly, will create a: 4) Conditioned Response Lets take another example Classical Conditioning 101 4 Volunteers for the Electric Game
1) The Electric Game Shocks You 2) How do you feel? 3) I play a sound when we shock you. Now, even without the Its a Classic Classical Conditioning can explain why certain people
have certain phobias, or like certain smells or foods, or even prefer certain teachers, do certain things, or helps us develop something called Muscle Memory. Its also a great way to train dogs and Cadets BUT it doesnt explain ALL Skinners and
A Psychologist we WONT study, Losers named Edward Thorndike worked for the U.S. Government during WWI Sidenote, he developed what would become the ASVAB Thorndike developed a Theory he called the Law of Effect which basically said, If a response is followed by a pleasurable
consequence, it will tend to be repeated, if followed by an unpleasant one, it will tend to not Skinners and FollowingLosers the War, in 1931, another Psychologist, named B.F. Skinner built on that work and coined the term Operant
Conditioning Learning Process where Behavior is controlled by Consequences Using this process is what we call Behavior Modification Phantom of the Operant Operant Conditioning is divided into TWO Types of
Consequences REINFORCEMENT PUNISHMENT However, there are POSITIVE and NEGATIVE forms of each Thus = Positive Crime & What Punishment do these terms actually
mean? Hint: They are NOT how they sound! REINFORCEMENT A consequence that is pleasurable and strengthens the response that came before it Leads to likely repeated behavior i.e. Giving Candy to Cadets who Respond
PUNISHMENT Accentuate the Positive How does that relate to Positive+ and Negative- ? Doesnt that just mean good and bad? NO! POSITIVE ( ) reinforcement OR punishment) means ADDING a
consequence Giving candy, or Squirting with water NEGATIVE ( ) reinforcement OR punishment) means REMOVING a A Warning: Do Reinforcements or Punishments always work? WHY might they not? ALWAYS remember, that just
because YOU think something is a Reinforcement or a Punishment, or even Positive or Negative, you might need to look closer Example Pretend we have a Cadet, lets call him, Shayden Horten Shayden is acting out in Class The teacher thinks Oh, Ill
send him out into the hall. Thatll teach him! Teacher is thinking this is what type of consequence? Negative Punishment I take away class to deter behavior Help Me Martin! For many years people held pretty solidly to Skinners theory, but in the 1980s Martin Seligman observed a sad
outcome with Dogs Fido gets NO breaks in Psychology Seligman took two different groups of Dogs For ONE group he paired a tone with a harmless but painful electric shock ( ) and repeated it) There was no way the dogs could escape the shock THEN he brought both this
Actual Photo of one of Seligmans Dogs Help Me Martin! While the unconditioned dogs quickly ran to the other side of the room, what do you think happened with the conditioned dogs? Surprisingly, they stood still, whimpered, and got shocked This behavior was termed
Learned Helplessness When repeated unpleasant consequences cause the subject to stop trying to avoid the unpleasant And So Unlike Biological Psychology, which can not be easily changed (and sometimes not at all) behavior that is learned CAN be changed,
modified, and molded Raise your children Well. NEXT TIME: A QUIZ and VIDEO After Spring Break: Learning Styles AND THEN: You will prepare to teach a skill, and help us Learn something
Another Experiment in Conditioning: Lyrics Have you ever had song lyrics you werent quite sure of? BUT you come up with some and they seem to fit, and THATS what you hear? Take this next example And please, dont say any
Objectives Define Learning Psychologicall y Identify two types of Conditioning, and their Inventors
For example, if you want to find the lyrics to a particular song, but you do not know the song title or artist, you might search the Internet using a unique phrase from the song. (For example, search using "yellow...
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I will copy these for our Thinking Skills Folder so everyone can share our BRILLIANT ideas. HAVE FUN! How does it all fit together? Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Creating Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER, Ridiculous Key, Combination Key, Invention Key Evaluating...
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