Lead apron artifact The figure above shows an extensive white area caused
by the lead apron. Note the black dots ( red arrow) that represent the stitching on the apron. The thyroid collar should never be used for panoramic radiography since it would routinely cause this same problem.
Positioning of Frankfort plane upward Chin tipped up too much. Hard palate superimposed over roots of maxillary teeth. Squared-off
mandible. Reverse Smile. Positioning of Frankfort plane downward
Chin tipped down too much. Roots of mandibular incisors shortened. V-shaped mandible. Positioning of teeth anterior to focal trough
Incisors positioned anterior to notch in bitestick. Anterior teeth narrower. Positioning of teeth posterior to focal trough
Incisors positioned posterior to notch in bitestick. Incisors wider than normal. Positioning of midsagittal plane
Head turned to the right, moving the teeth closer to the film on that side. The teeth on the left side, being farther from the film, will be magnified more and appear larger. Positioning of spine
White area in the center of the film represents the shadow of the vertebral column due to patient slouching.
Miscellaneous problems Static electricity caused by friction when removing film from box or cassette too rapidly.
Failure to remove complete upper denture before exposure. This is usually not a problem since the denture acrylic is not dense enough to block the image of the maxillary bone.
Failure to remove glasses. Also note squared-off mandible and reverse smile, indicating chin tipped up too much.
Slight patient movement indicated by notching of mandible at arrow. Under-exposure
Over-exposure Normal Anatomic Landmarks
Bony landmarks of maxilla and surrounding structures Normal anatomic landmarks of maxilla and surrounding structures: 1. mastoid process, 2. styloid process,
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