Opinions on 19th Century Imperialism

Opinions on 19th Century Imperialism

OPINIONS ON 19 CENTURY IMPERIALISM TH Assessing the positives and negatives TITLE-PROMPT-PERIODIZATIONCONTEXT Co ntext: Thro ug hout t he 1 7 50 -1 90 0 , there were those who s oug ht t he no tio n that the mo re yo ur co untry o wns, the strong er your

p o wer. This i ncreas ed nat io nal ism led p eo pl e in wes tern ind us tri alized so cieties to s upp o rt the ir go v ernm ent s policies o v ers eas . Co rp o rati o ns were garnering tremendo us p rofi ts for their s hareho ld ers and much o f tho se m o ni es we re rei nves ted in t echno lo g ies and pro vid ing healt h and wea lth fo r many invo lved . The W hite m ans b urd en was a justi ficat io n to exp loit the land la bo r and ca pit al b y arguing that im pe ri al p owers we re d oing s o to Christ iani ze, civi lize and com m erciali ze the nativ e inhab itant s who could no t do so fo r the mse lves ( so cia l Darwinism ). There were t ho s e, however, who s aw t he crue l and inhumane treat ment of t he col o nie s, the d ep th of d epravi ty o f their treatm ent and the unfai rnes s o f im peria l po licies and wo rke d t o end t he reign of im pe ria lism b y f o rmi ng anti -im perial so cieties . C olonies, too, who

were the pro duct o f this ex pl o itati o n ca me to g ether in rais ed v o ices to po int o ut the hyp o cri sy o f enlig hte ned s ocieties who com m itted such vi le act s ag ains t go o d p eo pl e. SYNTHESIS Although colonization would not end until the 20 t h century, the acts performed in the 19 t h century of divide and conquer continue to create tribal and ethnic strife often leading to civil war and genocide in some cases. The dependency of new imperialism led to the stripping of economies considered today as either third world or developed or worse. The cultural introduction of western superiority has

contributed to the continual foreign policy of government providing aid instead of investment and return. The once formidable empires of 600-1450 and 1450- 1750 whose favorable balance of trade eclipsed that of Europe and the West would struggle to remain globally relevant in the 21 s t century due to policies designed to weaken their futures. HISTORICAL CONTEXT B e t w e e n 1 8 70 a n d 1 9 2 0( p e r i o d i z a t i o n ) , E u ro p e a n d A m e r i ca n I m p e r i a l i s m ( t o p i c ) a c c e l e r a t e d d u e t o e co n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l f o rc e s ( g ro u p i n g ? ) . T h e i n d u s t r i a l re v o l u t i o n s t i rre d a m b i t i o n s o f

E u ro p e a n n a t i o n s , a n d w i t h t h e a d v a n c e s o f t e c h n o l o g y , t h e s e n a t i o n s w e re a b l e t o s p re a d t h e i r c o n t ro l o v e r o t h e r a re a s o f t h e w o r l d . T h e e m p i re b u i l d i n g f re n z y h a s b e e n s t u d i e d b y w i t n e s s h i s t o r i a n s w h o o ff e r a variety of perspectives as to its causes: Pro m p t ( q u e s t i o n ) : A n a l y z e t h e o p i n i o n o n 1 9 t h c e n t u r y i m p e r i a l i s m i n o rd e r t o e v a l u a t e i t s e ff e c t s o n b o t h E u ro p e a n s a n d t h e p e o p l e t h e y imperialized. What kind of additional documents would you need to f u r t h e r a s s e s s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e s e s a t t i t u d e s o n t h e i r re s p e c t i v e countries? DOC #1 This British Captain is discussing the role of Christian Missionaries to establish respect for Europeans by

illustrating the superiority of the natives of Africans and even cautions the reader (perhaps and Englishman at home preparing to visit) to not lower himself to their plane of the Africans referring them as savage and poverty and lowered status of the way of the Africans. This suggests the English were bringing a better way of life to Africa. DOCUMENT #2 T h i s s p e e c h b e f o re t h e Fre n c h c h a m b e r o f D e p u t i e s b y t h e Pr i m e M i n i s t e r J u l e s Fe rr y , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t f o r Fre n c h c o l o n i z a t i o n w e n e e d o u t l e t s f o r ex p o r t s f o r o u r h a rd - w o r k i n g p e o p l e o f I n d u s t r i a l Fr a n c e . H e e t h n o c e n t r i c a l l y re f e r s t o t h e E u ro p e a n s a s t h e

H i g h e r r a c e s h a v e a r i g h t o v e r t h e l o w e r r a c e s ( S o c i a l D a r w i n i s m ) . H e i d e n t i fi e s t h e c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n o f t h e Fre n c h t o h a v e t h e d u t y t o b r i n g t h e g e n e ro s i t y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n t o n a t i o n s ( t h e y i m p e r i a l i z e d We s t Af r i c a , Fre n c h I n d o - C h i n a a n d s o m e re g i o n s i n t h e C a r i b b e a n a n d L a t i n America). Note the comparison to what the Spanish had done in Central America( Slavery) DOCUMENT #3 Our first perspective from a imperialized individual. This Vietnamese statesman is negotiating with the French prior to a French attack on Vinh Long province. This nationalist sentiment identifies that ,regardless of the French military superiority it would be an

honor for me to die in battle. This reaction was probably utilized to encourage Vietnamese to continue fighting despite the overwhelming odds and suffering incurred by losing battles. DOCUMENT #4 This letter to the editor protesting delay in relief is from a n Irishman ( they had been imperialized by the British since the a ct of Union of 1701) IDENTIFIES THE EXPLOITATION O F THE British who were taking much needed scarce food supplies throughout their empire as the Irish were going through the potato blight ( bacter ia blackening potatoes rendering them inedible)The pur pose is to provided much needed aid to a ll people to

Parliament (English law-making body) beca use of starvation throughout the Irish countryside. An a dditional document from Jonathan Swifts modest proposa l would help understa nd the British indifference to Irish starvations (Swift satirically suggested that the solution to Irish problem of overpopula tion and starvation was to eat their own children DOCUMENT #5 This platform ( belief of a ll par ty members) in response to U.S occupation of Cuba, Puerto Rico a nd the Philippines after the Spanish-Amer ican War identifies that imperia lism is hostile to liberty and tends towa rd milita rism it invoke enlightened ideals all menentitled to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness

government coming from consent of governed..It is a condemnation of political subjugation and, like Doc #2 identifies past abuses in these territories by the Spanish. A document from satirica l writer Mark Twain would provide a personal a necdote of a popular, influential anti-imperialists to identify specific a buses done by America imperia lists. DOCUMENT #6 An account to help illustrate the favorable balance of trade British Exports to imports of such notable raw materials as cotton.iron,pepper, rice and opium ( for Chinese merchants) for finished products like tea, candy and sycee silver. This would provide British

industrial corporation and the crown and economic incentive to keep imperializing for the industrial factories of Great Britain. DOCUMENT #7 An Indian nationalist who was educated in British schools, Mohandas Ghandi ( in this imaginary dialogue) is responding to national extremist who wished independence from the British, he suggests that the British must capitulate to the demands of the Indian people by do as we wish and that the British civilization i s t h e r e v e r s e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n a n d I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n i s f a r s u p e r i o r a n d s h o u l d respect Indian religions (Hindus and Islam referred as Mohamedans). He wishes to reverse the culturally imperialism of the British by reverting back to the ways of the traditions and remove the customs the British wished to indoctrinate.

DOCUMENT #8 Fro m t h e f a t h e r o f C o m m u n i s m h i m s e l f , M a rx i n t h i s N e w s p a p e r a r t i cl e d i s c u s s e s t h e b a r b a r i t y o f B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m b y t h e b o u rg e o i s i e u s i n g w o rd s l i ke a t ro c i o u s ex t o r t i o n a n d c o rr u p t i o n . H e g o e s o n t o d i s c u s s t h e h y p o c r i s y o f w h a t t h e y s p o ke o f a t h o m e ( E u ro p e ) a b o u t l i b e r t y a n d fi g h t a g a i n s t d e b t w h i l e i n I n d i a t h e y v i o l a t e d t h o s e v e r y i d e a l s ex p l o i t i n g t h e l o c a l I n d i a n r u l e r s ( r a j a h s ) , d i s re s p e c t i n g re l i g i o n a n d t h e w o r k f o rc e . T h i s a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m w a s c o m m o n a m o n g s t t h e c o m m u n i s t a n d a p a s s a g e f ro m t h e i r s o n g T h e i n t e rn a t i o n a l e w h i ch p re a c h e s n o r a c i s m , c l a s s i s m a n d s ex i s m w o u l d b e a g re a t a d d i t i o n a l d o c u m e n t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e co n t r a r y t o t h e c a p i t a l i s m b e h i n d i m p e r i a l i s m

DOCUMENT #9 This Egyptian( Egypt was a protectotrate) economist working for the British is complaining about the lack of jobs available to the natives of Europe identifying that there are less factories for Egyptians coming out of technical schools and that all the jobs available that do require technical capabilities (ex. City jobs like repairing, oiling, tramway, electric and motor cars) employ only Europeans. An employment record( or unemployment) of cities like Cairo would provide an understanding of the complaints of Amir Boktor

DOCUMENT #10 T h i s Pre s i d e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Ad d re s s i n g C o n g re s s ( a ft e r S p a n i s h A m e r i c a n Wa r ) f o c u s e s o n A m e r i c a f o re i g n p o l i c y a n d t h e u s e o f f o rc e t o re m o v e t y r a n n y a n d o p p re s s o r s ( w h o i s t h a t ? ) a n d a i d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c i v i l i z i n g o f p e o p l e i n t h e We s t e rn h e m i s p h e re t o p ro v i d e s t a b i l i t y , o rd e r a n d p ro s p e r i t y. . b u t a l s o t a ke u p a rm s ( fi g h t ) w h e n necessary ( as was the case in Cuba) and ills rates some of the evils ( J e w s i n K i s h e n e f / p o g ro m s i n Ru s s i a , A rm e n i a n G e n o ci d e / c o m m i t t e d b y O t t o m a n Tu r k s ) . T h e p u r p o s e i s t o p o i n t t o t h e r i g h t e o u s n e s s o f t h e U . S a n d i l l s o f t h e O p p re s s o r s . A d o c u m e n t f ro m a C u b a n , Pi l i p i n o o r Pu e r t o R i c a n w o u l d i l l u s t r a t e w h e t h e r t h e y f e l t t h a t Ro o s e v e l t w a s j u s t i fi e d i n his assertion ( How about a Native American). THESIS

Fro m 1 87 0 - 1 9 2 0 o p i n i o n s o n 1 9 t h c e n t u r y d i ff e re d f ro m t h e i m p e r i l z e r s i n E u ro p e a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a ( T h e We s t ) w h o j u s t i fi e d t h e i r c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n b y j u s t i fy i n g t h e i r r i g h t t o d o s o b y b r i n g i n g j u s t i c e a n d s t a b i l i t y t o t h e w o r l d t o t h e i m p e r i a l i z e d w h o f e l t t h a t t h e ro l e o f i m p e r i a l i s m w a s ex p l o i t a t i v e a n d d i s re g a rd e d t h e r i g h t s t o t h e n a t i o n a l identity of native populations. Not all imperializes, however, felt that t h i s w a s r i g h t a n d a n t - i m p e r i a l i s m w o u l d g ro w o u t o f t h e s e e m i n g hypocrisy of enlightened ideas and their lacking in imperialized t e rr i t o r i e s . A n a c c o u n t o f a t ro c i t i e s o f K i n g Le o p o l d s B e l g i a n Ko n g o w o u l d h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e cr u d e n a t u re o f i m p e r i a l i z a t i o n a s w o u l d a n a c c o u n t o f t h e l i f e ex p e c t a n c y o f c o l o n i e s t o i l l u s t r a t e w h e t h e r t h e a i d p ro v i d e d b y i m p e r i a l i z e r s d i d a c t u a l l y i m p ro v e t h e c o l o n i e s l i v e s

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