OPLEMENJIVANJE DOMAĆIH ŽIVOTINJA - eu.me

OPLEMENJIVANJE DOMAĆIH ŽIVOTINJA - eu.me

MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Working Group for Chapter 11 Agriculture and Rural Development MONTENEGRIN AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY Danijela Stolica [email protected] gov.me Brussels, 11-13. December 2012 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Presentation Outline Main features of Montenegrin agriculture Agricultural policy: legal and strategic frame EU accession: challenges, tasks and duties Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development 2 Montenegro: Area 13.812 km2, Total population 625.000

Popul. density 45 inhab./km2 Capital Podgorica Divided into 21 municipalities Coastline: 293.5 km 3 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Main characteristics of Montenegros agriculture Land resources: 516.000 ha of total agricultural land, or 0.82 ha per capita 190.000 ha of arable land, or 0.30 ha per capita Economic importance high share in GDP, 8.3%, Agriculture is labour intensive, plays a role of a social buffer as the main source of income or a part of income for more than 47,000 of rural households

Structural characteristics: small family farms prevail, average size 5 ha, low productivity Low level of use of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) Chapter02/12/2020 11 Agriculture and rural development 4 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURAL LAND 62% Arable land 1% Permanent crops Grassland (meadow s) 9% 3% 25% Permanent pastures Other Total Agricultural land - 516,070 ha Arable land (fields and 44,524 Grassland 128,621 gardens) ha (meadows) ha

Permanent crops 16,107 Permanent pastures 325,436 ha ha Other 2,649 ha Note: Results of Agricultural census in 2010 Only 221,297.6 ha are used regularly by agricultural holdings ! Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Agricultural and arable land by the regions Region Coastal Central Northern MNE total Total area Agricultural land Arable land km2 % ha % ha %

1,591 11 51,019 9.9 18,766 9.9 4,917 36 153,525 30 44,497 24 7,304 53 311,526 60 125,626 67 13,812 100 516,070

100 188,889 100 Data source: Source: MONSTAT- Statistical yearbook 2010 Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development 6 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Total and used agricultural land with ownership structure Indicator Total available agricultural land Number of holdings Total available land, ha Average holding size with agricultural land, ha Used agricultural land Number of holdings Total agricultural land used, ha Average size of holdings using agricultural land, ha Ownership structure Holders own land, ha Land rented and collective land (katun, commune),ha Source: MONSTAT Agricultural Census 2010 Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development Total 48,870 309,240.7 6.3 48,277 221,297.6 4.6 176,251.3 (57%)

132,989.4 (43%) MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Structure of used agricultural land Category < 0,50 ha 0,50- < 1,00 ha 1,00- < 5,00 ha 5,00- < 10,00 ha 10,00- < 20,00 ha 20,00- < 50,00 ha 50,00- < 100,00 ha > 100 ha Total Source: MONSTAT Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development Number of holdings Used agricultural land total 18526 8467 16494 2712 % 37,8 17,3 33,7 5,6 ha 4130 6347 36025 18532

% 1,9 2,9 16,3 8,4 1157 2,4 15490 7,0 642 1,3 20207 9,1 441 431 48870 0,9 0,9 100 31646 88912 221288 14,3 40,2 100 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union

Urban and rural population by the regions Region Populatio n, total Urban population Rural population Figure % Figure % Coastal 148,683 86,707 58.3 61,976 41.7 Central 293,509 233,640 79.6 59,869

20.4 Northern 177,837 71,673 40.3 106,164 59.7 Monteneg ro total 620,029 392,020 63.2 228009 36.8 Data source: MONSTAT - Census 2011 Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development 9 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Employment in Agriculture Labour force at Family agricultural holdings by age groups Category Up to 24 years

Between 24 and 34 years Between 35 and 44 years Between 45 and 54 years Between 55 and 64 years 65 years and over Montenegro, total Source: MONSTAT Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development Total employment Number 6,717 % 6.8 Annual Working Units Number % 2,304.9 5.0 11,340 11.5 4,838.6 10.4 15,675 15.9

7,606.8 16.4 21,562 21.9 10,447.9 22.5 19,849 20.2 10,001.6 21.5 23,198 98,341 23.6 100.0 11,273.3 46,473.0 24.3 100.0 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Employment in Agriculture Education of working persons in agriculture No education 3.87%, Unfinished primary education

Primary education 5.79%, 27.9%, Any secondary school finished 53.33%, Post-secondary or higher education 9.11%. Source: MONSTAT Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union MONTENEGRIN AGRICULTURE IS VERY DIVERSIFIED ! Olives & citruses in the coastal part Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development Vegetables & vine in the central part Cattle & sheep, in the northern part MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union

Plant production The plant production is dominated by: production of vegetables, grapes, potato, fruit, olives, while production of cereals is at a very low level. A small volume of cereal production is one of specific features of Montenegros agriculture According to the Statistical yearbook 2010, the plant production takes place on 12% of total agricultural area, of which field crop-vegetable production on 9%, and fruitviticulture production on about 3% of total agricultural area. The total area in plant production has been reduced by about 4% in the period 2001-2010. Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN SUBESTORS IN AGRICULTURE Fruit growing Indicator 2007 2008 2009 2010 11,976 11,885 11,899 11,970

Total number of trees (000) 2,740 2,746 2,799 2,753 Total fruit production (in 000 t) 29.0 30.3 39.8 33.9 Area* (ha) Sources: MONSTAT, Statistical yearbook 2011 In total number of trees plum, apple and pear prevail, while in the coastal part those are figs, oranges and tangerines. In the northern part of Montenegro, plum prevails and is mainly used for brandy production (more than 95%), while a smaller part is processed into jams and preserves, dried or used fresh. Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN SUBSECTORS IN AGRICULTURE Olive growing Indicator

2007 2008 2009 2010 Number of trees (000) 417 418 406 408 Production (000 t) 1.2 2.4 1.6 2.3 Yield per tree (kg) 2.9 5.7 3.9 5.7 Sources: MONSTAT, Statistical yearbook 2011 About 70% of the plantations are traditional,

Variety structure - more than 90% are autochthons varieties (utica and others) The potential allows production of more than 2,000 t of olive oil per year, Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN SUBESTORS IN AGRICULTURE Vine growing and wine production Indicator 2007 2008 2009 2010 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4 No of vine plants (mil.) 17.0 16.9 17.0 17.0 Production (000 t)

35.4 44.0 39.0 40.0 Yield per ha (t) 9.4 9.9 10.1 10.1 Yield per plant (kg) 2.1 2.6 2.2 2.4 Area of vineyards (000 ha) Sources: MONSTAT, Statistical yearbook 2011 Autochthonous grape vine varieties prevail (more than 70%) for red wine (Vranac, Kratoija) and white wines (Krsta), Wine is by far the biggest export commodities (20 mil. euro) in food sector Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union

THE MAIN SUBESTORS IN AGRICULTURE Field crop and vegetable growing The area of main field and vegetable crops (000 ha), 20072010 2008 Indicator 2007 2009 2010 Plough land - total Fallow Area sown Cereals Potato Vegetables (excl. potato) Tobacco Fodder Source: MONSTAT- Statistical yearbook 2011 Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development 45.0 13.6 31.3 5.2 10.2 45.2 13.9 31.3 5.1 10.2 45. 7 13.8 31.9 5.2 10.4 45.4 14 31

5.0 10.2 17.9 18.1 18.4 18.2 0.16 8.0 0.15 7.9 0.13 8.1 0.12 7.6 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN SUBESTORS IN AGRICULTURE The livestock sector Main characteristics The livestock plays a major part of the whole agriculture (more than 50% of total output), Rearing of ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) prevails due to the natural resources, while pig and poultry production are not well developed

No dual structure in rearing of ruminants family farms prevail There are some positive structural changes, size of farm/flock is increasing Domestic production of meat and milk is far bellow the consumption (including tourism), self sufficiency for meat is 18 Chapter 11 about 36%, for milk is about 80% Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN SUBESTORS IN AGRICULTURE The livestock sector Cattle, sheep and goats population in Montenegro Region Coastal Central Northern MNE total Cattle1 Sheep1 Goats2 Number Share,% Number Share,%

Number Share,% 6,374 7 10,553 5 5,417 15 23,372 24 50,019 25 18,734 54 66,217 69 137,594 70 10,850 31 100

198,165 100 35,001 100 95,963 (67,259 -cows and heifers) Data Source: MONSTAT: 1) - Statistical yearbook 2011; 2) - The Agricultural Census 2010 Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development 19 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN SUBESTORS IN AGRICULTURE The livestock sector Milk production in Montenegro 136 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 9 5 000, t Cow's

91% Sheep's 6% Goat's 3% Source: MONSTAT, Statistical Yearbook,2011, estimation for goats milk Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development 20 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN SUBESTORS IN AGRICULTURE The livestock sector Meat production in Montenegro 6800 7000 6000 4100 5000 3050 4000 3200 3000 2000 1000 0 000, kg Bovine meat

Sheep and goats Poultry Pork Source: Meat Sector study, 2010 Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development 21 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Foreign trade in agricultural-food products Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development 22 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union SWOT analyses of the agriculture Weaknesses Strengths - Available land resources - Price competitiveness for limited number of products - Good preconditions for organic agriculture - Tradition in production - New capacities in the processing industry - Positive changes in the institutional frame

Opportunities - Organic agriculture, - Production of traditional certified products in greater volume, -Tourism as a driving force for the local products, - Export of wine, vegetables, fruit, lamb meat etc. Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development - Insufficient technological level causes low competitiveness - Small scale production subsistence farming prevails - Age, social and educational level of producers are not favorable - The food chain is still weak Threats - Opening of the market can threaten the sensitive sectors - Neglecting of agriculture in the general economical policy, lack of the support - Failure in harmonization of the legislation with the EU Acquis and in capacity building 23 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Montenegros inequality compared to EU 27 and some of its Members Indicator Area, 000 km2 Population, 000 inhab. Population density, inhab/km2 GDP per capita, EUR GDP in agriculture, %

Used agric. Land, 000 ha Average farm size, ha Area under forest, % Wheat yield, t/ha Potato production , t/ha Milk production, kg/cow Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development EU (27) Austria Slovenia Bulgaria MNE 4,324,782 83,870 20,273 110,910 13,812 499,705 8,355 2,042 7,576 625 115.5 101.1 100.7 68.4 45 23,500 1.1 178,443 13.4 42 6.0 29.2 6,346

32,900 0.9 3,169 19.7 5.7 33.2 6,060 17,300 1.1 469 7.5 4.9 22.8 5,067 4,600 3.8 5,101 1.5 4.2 16.3 3,419 4,744 8.3 221 6.3 44.3 3.5 13.1 2,500 MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Institutional Support Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

Veterinary Directorate Fitosanitary Directorate Biotechnical Faculty The Livestock Selection Service The Extension Service in Plant Production Specialized Laboratories Other state institutions and organizations Advisory service at the local self governance level Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union The main reforms in agriculture 1. Preparation of the strategic documents 2. Preparation and adoption of laws 3. Capacity building and administration strengthening 4. International integrations: CEFTA 5. Membership in international organization (WTO, FAO; OIV etc.)

6. Accession to EU Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Reforms in Agriculture strategic documents Strategy MONTENEGROS AGRICULTURE AND EUROPEAN UNION Food Production and Rural Development Main objectives: sustainable resource management; stable and acceptable supply of safe food; ensuring an adequate standard of living for the rural population; increase in competitiveness of food producers. Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union National Programme for food production and rural development 2009-2013 Operation program for implementation of Strategy Framework for harmonisation of Montenegrian Agriculture with CAP, Contains measures of agricultural policy (the three axis plus LEADER approach)

Multiannual financial plan for Agriculture (plan for each measure with financial sources) Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union National Programme Measures 2009-2013 No Measur es Agrobudget% Agrob. + others sources, % 9 29.0 26.7 17 39.3 42.2 3. Support to general services in agriculture 8 18.0

18.3 4. Social transfers to rural population 1 11.2 10.3 5. Tehnical and administrative support to Program implemenation 1 2.5 2.5 36 100 100 Group of measure 1. Market policy 2. Rural development policy Total Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Accession to EU Objectives Full integration into EU the legal system

The overcome structural and developmental weaknesses of the sector during pre-accession period To build up absorption capacites in agriculture enable to use possibilities of EU membership Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Accession to EU Objectives To inrease competitiveness To implement EU standards To upgrade the whole food chain To implement Rural Development policy as a tool for providing public goods and ensure good living standards for rural population Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN CHALLENGES AND TASKS EU accession agenda harmonization of the legislation with the EU Acquis communautaire, particularly at a level of sublaws and rulebooks and thier implementation Full implementation of the national strategic documents

Implementation of IPARD program (coherent with the Strategy and NP) To build-up an appropriate implementing stracture for agricultural policy harmonised with CAP (Paying agency, Managing authority, IACS) To strenghten analytical support to the agriculture and rural development Raising of public awareness on the importance of agri sector in EU Chapter 11 integrations Agriculture and rural development MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union THE MAIN CHALLENGES AND TASKS In Preparation of the New Strategy 2014-2020, focus shall be on similar objectives like new CAP: Viable food production Sustainble managment of natural resources Balanced territorial development Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development Mountain pasture with summer

settlements called katuns MONTENEGRO Negotiating Team for the Accession of Montenegro to the European Union Thank you for your attention ! Chapter 11 Agriculture and rural development

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