9 1 1.

(Heterogeneous)Heterogeneous)) (Heterogeneous)Homogeneous)) 2 2. (Exporatory Exporatory research)) (Exporatory Experimental research)) (Exporatory Qualitative research)) (Exporatory Descriptive research))

(Exporatory Causual research)) 3 3. (Exporatory Parametric Statistics)

30 (Exporatory Nonparametric Statistics) 30 Multivariate Statistic 4 2 (Exporatory Nominal Scale) - (Exporatory Ch)i Square) (Exporatory ei) (Exporatory Cell) (Exporatory Contigency Table) 5

5 (Exporatory Parametric statistics) - - - -

(Exporatory Interval data) 6 (Exporatory Nonparametric statistics) - - - (Exporatory Ordinal

(Exporatory Nominal data)data) 7 4. 1% 5 % 10% 8

5. 9 6.

10 11

1. (Exporatory , 2527, 79) 100 < N < 1,000 n = 15 - 30 % N 1,000 < N < 10,000 n = 10 - 15 % N 10,000 < N < 100,000 n = 5 - 10 % N 100,000 < N < 1,000,000 n = 1 - 5 % N N

n 12 75 - 150 500 1,800 180 - 270 27,500 1,375 - 2,750 160,000 1,600 - 1,800

13 2. 14 ... 1.

(Exporatory Standard error of th)e estimate) : e 2. (Exporatory Level of confidence) : ZZ 99 % =Z2.58 95 % Z = 1.96 15 90 % = 1.64 1. 1.1 n

= Z2 2 e2 n = Z = 2 = e = 16 1 10,000 4,000

e = 10 % 10,000 = 1,000 = 10,000 10% = 4,000 Z 95 % = 1.96 2 = 61 = (Exporatory 1.96)2 (Exporatory 4,000)2 n =

Z 2 95% e 2 (Exporatory 1,000)2 17 1.2 n = NZ2 2 Ne2 + Z2

2 n = N = Z = e = 18 2 1 3,760,533 2 2 n =

N Z 2 Ne2 + Z2 (Exporatory 3,760,533) (Exporatory 1.96)2 (Exporatory 4,000)2 (Exporatory 3,760,533) (Exporatory 1,000)2 +(Exporatory 1.96)2 (Exporatory 4,000)2 = 61.4646 19 1.3 n ?

= Z2 (Exporatory est. e2 )2 ? 20 3 .. 2543 7,000

Pilot Study (Exporatory est. standard deviation) 2,250 5% e = 5 % 7,000 = = 7,000 95 % 350 est. Z = 2,250 n 95 % = 1.96 2 (Exporatory est. 2) = (Exporatory 1.96)2 (Exporatory 2,250)2 =Z = 158.76

e2 (Exporatory 350)2 21 1.4 n = 1 + n0 = n0 n0

N Z2 (Exporatory est. )2 e2 22 4 3 .. 2543 100,000 n n = 0 1 +

n0 = Z2 (Exporatory est. e2 2) = n0 N (Exporatory 1.96)2 (Exporatory 2,250)2 (Exporatory 350)2 n= 1 + = 159 159 = 159

159 100,000 23 2. 2.1 n = Z2 p (Exporatory 1-p) e2 n = Z = p = e =

24 2.2 n = 1 + n0 = n0 n0 N Z2 p (Exporatory 1-p) e2

25 2.3 n = Z2 p (Exporatory 1-p) e 2 = Z2 0.5 (Exporatory 1 - 0.5) e2 n =

Z2 4e2 26 2.4 n = N Z2 p (Exporatory 1 - p) Ne2 + Z2 p (Exporatory 1 - p) 27 3. 2 2

N (Exporatory C V) Z n = 2 (Exporatory CV)2 Z2 + (Exporatory N-1 ) e N-1 n = N = Z = CV = e = 28

Z Z 3 99 % Z = 2.58 2 % = 1.96 Z95 90 % = 1.64 N (Exporatory CV)2 Z2 n = (Exporatory CV)2 2

Z2 + (Exporatory N-1 ) e N-1 N N - 1 N n = N 1 + Ne2 29 Taro Yamane N n = 1 + Ne2 30

1. (Non Probability Sampling) 2. (Probability Sampling) 31 1. (Non Probability Sampling)

32 4 1.1 Convenience or Accidental Sampling (Exporatory ) 33 ...

(Heterogeneous)Sampling element) 34

35 (Exporatory Exploratory research)) (Exporatory h)ypoth)esis) 36 1.2 Purposive Sampling (Exporatory )

37 (Heterogeneous) Marketing tes)t )

38 1.3 Quota Sampling (Exporatory )

8,500 7,000 85 : 72 10 % 39 850 720 1.4 Snowball sampling (Exporatory )

40 2. (Probability Sampling) (random sample) ) ... 41

(Exporatory ) (Exporatory Randomization) (Exporatory Random 42 Sample) 5 2.1 Simple Random Sampling 2.2 Systematic Random Sampling 2.3 Cluster Random Sampling

2.4 Stratified Random Sampling 2.5 Multi Stage Cluster Sampling 43 2.1 Simple Random Sampling (Exporatory ) (Exporatory Sampling Frame)

(Exporatory Homogenous) 44 45 1 2

3 46 . (Exporatory Th)e Th)e Lottery Meth)od) (Exporatory )

3 1. 2. 3. 47 . (Exporatory Th)e Table of Random Numbers Meth)od)

10 (Exporatory Block) ) 10 (Exporatory Block) ) 2 48 49 (Exporatory Simple Random Sampling) (Exporatory 1)

(Exporatory 2) (Exporatory 3) (Exporatory 4) (Exporatory 5) (Exporatory 6) (Exporatory 7) (Exporatory 8) (Exporatory 9) (Exporatory 10) (Exporatory 11) (Exporatory 12) (Exporatory 13)

(Exporatory 14) (Exporatory 15) (Exporatory 16) (Exporatory 17) (Exporatory 18) (Exporatory 19) (Exporatory 20) (Exporatory 21) (Exporatory 22) (Exporatory 23) (Exporatory 24)

(Exporatory 25) (Exporatory 26) (Exporatory 27) (Exporatory 28) (Exporatory 29) (Exporatory 30) (Exporatory 31) (Exporatory 32) (Exporatory 33) (Exporatory 34) (Exporatory 35) (Exporatory 18)

(Exporatory 13) (Exporatory 24) (Exporatory 2) (Exporatory 16) (Exporatory 11) (Exporatory 35) (Exporatory 12) 50

51 2.2 Systematic Random Sampling (Exporatory )

1 2 3 (Sampling Interval I) 52 = N

I n (Exporatory ) 50 6 (Exporatory i) = 50 = 8.3 8 6 53

4 ( Random Start ) 1 R i 1 1 - 8 4 5 R 4 + i , (R R +=24)i , ,

R+ (n - 1) i 5 4 , 54 (Exporatory Systematic Sampling) (Exporatory 1) (Exporatory 2) (Exporatory 3)

(Exporatory 4) (Exporatory 5) (Exporatory 6) (Exporatory 7) (Exporatory 8) (Exporatory 9) (Exporatory 10) (Exporatory 11) (Exporatory 12) (Exporatory 13) (Exporatory 14) (Exporatory 15)

(Exporatory 16) (Exporatory 17) (Exporatory 18) (Exporatory 19) (Exporatory 20) (Exporatory 21) (Exporatory 22) (Exporatory 23) (Exporatory 24) (Exporatory 25) (Exporatory 26)

(Exporatory 27) (Exporatory 28) (Exporatory 29) (Exporatory 30) (Exporatory 31) (Exporatory 32) (Exporatory 33) (Exporatory 34) (Exporatory 35) (Exporatory 36) (Exporatory 37) (Exporatory 38)

(Exporatory 39) (Exporatory 40) (Exporatory 41) (Exporatory 42) (Exporatory 43) (Exporatory 44) (Exporatory 45) (Exporatory 46) (Exporatory 47) (Exporatory 48) (Exporatory 49)

(Exporatory 50) (Exporatory 4) (Exporatory 12) (Exporatory 20) (Exporatory 28) (Exporatory 36) (Exporatory 44) 55

10 56 2.3 Cluster Random Sampling (Exporatory )

57 1 2

3 2 58

59 60

2.4 Stratified Random Sampling (Exporatory ) (Exporatory Strata) (Exporatory Homogenous) 61 1

2 62 1 (Exporatory Non Proportional Stratified Random Sampling)

500 7,000 500 2,000 500 1,000

.. 63 1,500 64 2 (Exporatory Proportional Stratified Random Sampling)

65 7,000 2,000 1,000 1,500

??? = 7,000 x 1,500 = 1,050 300 150 10,000 = 2,000 x 1,500 = = 1,000 x 1,500 =

10,000 10,000 66 67

(Heterogeneous)Skewed)) 68 2.5 Multi Stage Cluster Sampling (Exporatory )

2 69 1 4

70 2 1 10 ... 71 1.

(Exporatory Random Sampling Error) 2. (Exporatory Non Sampling Error) 72 2. (Exporatory Non Sampling Error) 2.1 (Exporatory Response Error) 2.2 (Exporatory Interviewer Errors) 2.3 (Exporatory Respondent Errors) 73 2.1

(Exporatory Response Error) (Exporatory 1) (Exporatory 2) (Exporatory 3) (Exporatory 4) 74 2.2 (Heterogeneous)Interviewe (Exporatory r1) Errors)) (Exporatory 2)

(Exporatory 3) (Exporatory 4) 75 2.3 (Exporatory Respondent Errors) (Exporatory 1) (Exporatory 2) (Exporatory 3) 76