Oporná sústava - kostra

Oporná sústava - kostra

Oporn sstava kostra = sceletum - pasvny pohybov apart, prepojen so svalmi - opora tela - ochrana dleitch orgnov ( mozog, miecha, pca, srdce) - 206 kost

- tvoria ju spojivov tkaniv Spojivov tkanivo f: podporn alebo zabezpeenie ltkovej vmeny Tvoria ho : - bunky - medzibunkov hmota - zkladn hmota - vlknit zloka kolagnov vlkna - elastick vlkna

- retikulov vlkna Typy: 1. vzivo 2. chrupka 3. kos Vzivo -

mkk, prun, obsahuje vea vody bunky = fibrocyty medzibunkov hmota vlkna = fibrily : - kolagnov vlkna odoln voi ahu (achy, kbov pzdra) - elastick vlkna prunos (steny ciev) Chrupka

- pevn, prun - bunky = chondrocyty medzibunkov hmota vlkna 3 typy : 1.hyalnna chrupka sklovit prevaha tenk kolagnov vlkna ( nosov priehradka, kbov chrupky, priedunicov chrupky)

2.elastick chrupka prevaha elastick vlkna ( un lalik, Eustachova trubica, hrtanov prchlopka) 3.vzivov chrupka hust sie kolagnovch vlken ( medzistavcov platniky, lonov spona) Kos - tvrd a pevn

- bunky = osteocyty pavkovit bunky, uloen v dutinkch kostnej hmoty, pospjan vbekami - medzibunkov hmota 20 % voda - 50-55 % anorganick ltky fosforeany a CaCO3 (tvrdos, pevnos) - 25-30 % organick ltky osen ( prunos ) http://lms.planetavedomosti.sk/ctrl.php/preview/coursecs?

c=1&pbka=0&pbk=%2Fctrl.php%2Fteacher%2Fcontent Kostn tkanivo: hust kompaktn kos (povrchov as kosti, stredn as dlhch kost) hubovit (riedke) hubovit kos ( vntro

plochch a krtkych kost, rozren koncov asti dlhch kost) Stavba dlhej kosti Vonkajia: -rozren koniec -hlavica = epifza -stredn rrovit as = diafza Vntorn stavba (od povrchu): 1. 2.

3. 4. okostica (periost, periosteum) cievy, nervy, rast do hrbky hust - sdrn kostn tkanivo hubovit kostn tkanivo tenk trmeky tvoriace priestorov sie kostn dre erven- tvorba krviniek (v dosp. hrudn kos, rebr, tel stavcov), vekom ltne (tuk) a edne

Tvar kost: - zvis od funkcie dlh (ramenn kos, stehenn kos) krtke (zprstn, priehlavkov kosti) ploch (lopatka, kosti lebky) nepravideln (stavce chrbtice) -------------------------------------------- vzdun - pneumatick (elov kos)

Vznik kosti osifikciou (kostnatenie) : 2 spsobmi: o z vziva vznik plochch kost ale aj rast kosti do hrbky (rky) z okostice o z chrupky vina kost -

osifikcia zana spravidla uprostred chrupky - tu vznikaj mal osifikan centr (jadr) renie osifikcie do dky i k povrchu konce (epifzy pri dlhch kostiach) osifikuj zo samostatnch osifikanch centier medzi epifzami a diafzou sa nachdzaj rastov chrupky rastov platniky ,

zabezpeuj rast kosti do 18-20 veku ivota o ovplyvuje rastov hormn, potom osifikuj - - Spojenie kost: 1.Nepohybliv -

vzivom (vy na lebke) chrupkou (rebr s hrudnou kosou, spojenie lonovch kost) - kostnm tkanivom (spojenie stavcov do krovej kosti, kostre) 2.Pohybliv,kbom Kb tvor:

- kbov pzdro - kbov plochy (hlavice) pokryt hyalnnou chrupkou - kbov dutina ( v nej kbov maz) - kbov vzy Kbov plochy guovit, valcovit, kladkovit... Kby jednoduch

zloen kb kolena - najv a najzloitej - spja 3 kosti stehenn, palu a jabko - obsahuje menisky = polmesiaikovit chrupky KOSTRA

(skelet) Kostra hlavy Kostra trupu Kostra konatn http://www.virtual-lab.sk/ Kostra hlavy lebka (cranium) tvrov

(splanchnocranium) mozgov (neurocranium) 2 asti: Tvrov as lebky Nosov kos Slzn kos Jarmov kos

eus Snka uchov kos Doln nosov mua erieslo Podnebn kos Jazylka Mozgov as lebky Temenn kos

Klinov kos elov kos Spnkov kos Zhlavn kos vy : plovit lambdovit upinov hladk Chrbtica

- 33 a 34 stavcov ( vertebrae) krn stavce(7) hrudnkov stavce(12) driekov stavce(5) krov stavce (5) - zrasten kostrov stavce (4-5) zrasten do kostre zakrivenia (2 krt esovite) prunos, tlmenie nrazov pri chdzi, dsledok vzpriamenej

chdze medzistavcov platniky(23) asti stavca telo, oblk, otvor, vbeky : - 3 svalov vbeky - 2 pry kbovch plok

(vbekov) hrudnkov stavce najvraznej tovit vbeok - na bokoch tela kbov plky na napojenie rebier driekov stavce najmohutnejie telo, tupo nosi = atlas 1.krn stavec

nem telo m predn a zadn oblk v otvore prieny vz nasad na lebka a zabezpeuje jej kvav pohyby resp. vo vertiklnom smere

apovec = axis 2. krn stavec z jeho tela vybieha nahor zub a zapad do prednho oblka nosia zabezpeuje otav pohyby, v horizontlnom smere

Hrudnk (thorax) hrudn kos (os sternum), rebr 12 prov (costae), hrudnkov stavce rukov telo meovit

vbeok prav - 7 prov neprav - 3 pry von - 2 pry Kostra hornej konatiny Pletenec:

Kna kos (clavicula) Lopatka (scapula) Von horn konatina: Ramenn kos (humerus) Lakov kos (ulna ) Vretenn kos (radius) Kosti zpstia lnkovit, menia mesiaikovit, trojhrann, hrkovit, via a

a menia lichobenkov, hlavikat, hkov -8 (ossa carpi ) Zprstn kosti - 5 (o. metacarpi) lnky prstov - 14 (o. digitorum) (2 palec a 3 ostatn prsty) Kostra dolnej konatiny

Pletenec: Panvov kos os coxae (zrasten z bedrovej, sedacej a lonovej kosti) Von doln konatina: Stehenn kos (femur) Jabko - patella Pala (tibia) Ihlica (fibula) Kosti priehlavku (ossa tarsi - lenkov, lnkovit, 3 klinov kosti, kockovit, ptov) 7

Predpriehlavkov kosti 5 (ossa metatarsi) lnky prstov 14 (palec 2, ostatn prsty 3) CHOROBY KOSTROVEJ SSTAVY: 1. Osteoporza rednutie kost (mlo vpnika vo vive) 2. Chyby chrbtice ploch chrbt; ohnut, guat chrbt; skoliza vyboenie; vyskoenie platniky ischia

3. Reumatoidn artritda autoimunitn ochorenie, zpalov postihnutie kbov 4. Artrza pokodenie chrupky a degenercia kbov 5. Zlomenina fraktra, podvrtnutie distorzia; vykbenie luxcia 6. Dna metabolick ochorenie ukladanie kyseliny moovej v kboch

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