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Translation Dr. Kevin Ahern Central Dogma

mRNA Structure Bacteria

Genetic Code Universal

Redundant Logical Punctuated

64 Codons 3 Stops 1 Start 2 Unique for AA

59 Redundant Translation Steps

Central Dogma Nucleus

Cytoplasm Eukaryotes

Translation Simple View of Translation

Start Codon Stop Codon

Structure tRNAs - Translator Molecules

Amino Acid Attachment Point tRNAs - Translator Molecules

Amino Acid Activation - Charging of tRNAs Aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase

Type 1 - AA on 2 OH Type 2 - AA on 3 OH Charging of tRNAs

fMet Synthesis in Prokaryotes Wobble Base

Wobble Base Small Ribosomal Subunit (30S Prokaryotes)

Large Ribosomal Subunit (50S Prokaryotes) Structure

50S Ribosomal Subunit rRNAs

Simple Overview Overview

Prokaryotes - Shine-Dalgarno Sequence Shine-Dalgarno Sequence

16S rRNA Sequence Initiation

Initiation Structure

Protection Against Hydrolysis EF-Tu

Elongation Elongation

Termination Translation in Prokaryotes

1. Binding of mRNA by small subunit 2. Sliding to identify start codon (Shine-Dalgarno) 3. Base pairing of anticodon of initiator tRNA to AUG in mRNA (3 IFs) 4. Binding of large subunit

5. Entry of second tRNA into A-site (EF-Tu) 6. Peptide bond formation - peptide on tRNA in A-site 7. Translocation (requires GTP & EFG) 8. Exit of used tRNA, entry of new charged tRNA

9. Repeat 5-8 to STOP Codon 10. Entry of release factor with water Translation in Eukaryotes

Differences 1. mRNA structure 2. Ribosome sizes (60S & 40S)

3. rRNA sizes (extra rRNA) 4. No Shine-Dalgarno 5. No fMet

Translation in Eukaryotes - Initiation Kozak Sequences

Eukaryotic Translation Elongation

Eukaryotic Translation Bonding to mRNA

Premature Stopping of Translation

Degradation of mRNA Membrane Proteins

Structure Membrane Protein Synthesis

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