Organizational Behavior 10e - Stephen P. Robbins

Organizational Behavior 10e - Stephen P. Robbins

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS OBJECTIVES LEARNING After studying chapter five and listening to my lecture,you should be able to: 1. Explain how two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently. 2. List three determinants of attribution. 3. Describe how shortcuts can assist in or distort our judgment of others. 4. Explain how perception affects the decisionmaking process. 5. Outline the six steps in the rational decisionmaking model.

O B J E C T I V E S (contd) LEARNING Outline continues: 6. Describe the action of a boundedly rational decision maker. 7. Identify the conditions in which individuals are most likely to use intuition in decision making. 8. Describe four styles of decision making. 9. Define heuristics and explain how they bias decisions. 10. Contrast the three ethical decision criteria.

What What Is Is Perception, Perception, and and Why Why Is Is ItIt Important? Important? Peoples Peoples behavior behavior isis based based on on their their perception

perception of of what what reality reality is, is, not not on on reality reality itself. itself. The The world world as as itit isis perceived

perceived isis the the world world that that isis behaviorally behaviorally important. important. Factors FactorsThat That Influence Influence Perception Perception

EXHIBIT 5-1 Person Person Perception: Perception: Making Making Judgments Judgments About About Others Others Distinctiveness: Distinctiveness:shows

showsdifferent differentbehaviors behaviorsinindifferent differentsituations. situations. Consensus: Consensus:response responseisisthe thesame sameas asothers otherstotosame samesituation. situation. Consistency: Consistency:responds

respondsininthe thesame sameway wayover overtime. time. Attribution AttributionTheory Theory EXHIBIT 5-2 Errors

Errors and and Biases Biases in in Attributions Attributions Errors Errors and and Biases Biases in in Attributions Attributions (contd) (contd) Frequently Frequently Used

Used Shortcuts Shortcuts in in Judging Judging Others Others Frequently Frequently Used Used Shortcuts Shortcuts in in Judging Judging Others Others Frequently Frequently Used

Used Shortcuts Shortcuts in in Judging Judging Others Others Specific Specific Applications Applications in in Organizations Organizations Employment Interview Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers judgments of applicants. Performance Expectations

Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities. Performance Evaluations Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance. Employee Effort Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias. The The Link Link Between

Between Perceptions Perceptions and and Individual Individual Decision Decision Making Making Perceptions Perceptions of ofthe the decision decision maker

maker Outcomes Assumptions Assumptions of of the the Rational Rational Decision-Making Decision-Making Model Model 1. 1. 2. 2.

Problem Problemclarity clarity Known Knownoptions options 3. 3. 4. 4. Clear Clearpreferences preferences

Constant Constant preferences preferences No Notime timeor orcost cost constraints constraints Maximum Maximumpayoff payoff 5.

5. 6. 6. Steps Steps in in the the Rational Rational Decision-Making Decision-Making Model Model EXHIBIT 5-3

The The Three Three Components Components of of Creativity Creativity EXHIBIT 5-4 How How Are Are Decisions Decisions Actually Actually Made

Made in in Organizations Organizations How How Are Are Decisions Decisions Actually Actually Made Made in in Organizations Organizations (contd) (contd) How/Why problems are identified

Visibility over importance of problem Attention-catching, high profile problems Desire to solve problems Self-interest (if problem concerns decision maker) Alternative Development Satisficing: seeking the first alternative that solves problem. Engaging in incremental rather than unique problem solving through successive limited comparison of alternatives to the current alternative in effect. Making Making Choices

Choices Making Making Choices Choices Decision-Style Decision-Style Model Model EXHIBIT 5-5 Organizational Organizational Constraints

Constraints on on Decision Decision Makers Makers Performance Evaluation Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions. Reward Systems Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the organization. Formal Regulations Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices of decision makers. System-imposed Time Constraints

Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines. Historical Precedents Past decisions influence current decisions. Cultural Cultural Differences Differences in in Decision Decision Making Making

Problems selected Time orientation Importance of logic and rationality Belief in the ability of people to solve problems Preference for collect decision making Ethics Ethics in in Decision Decision Making Making Ethical Decision Criteria Utilitarianism Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number.

Rights Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals. Justice Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially. Ethics Ethics in in Decision Decision Making Making Ethics and National Culture There are no global ethical standards. The ethical principles of global organizations

that reflect and respect local cultural norms are necessary for high standards and consistent practices.

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