ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS OBJECTIVES LEARNING After studying chapter five and listening to my lecture,you should be able to: 1. Explain how two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently. 2. List three determinants of attribution. 3. Describe how shortcuts can assist in or distort our judgment of others. 4. Explain how perception affects the decisionmaking process. 5. Outline the six steps in the rational decisionmaking model.
O B J E C T I V E S (contd) LEARNING Outline continues: 6. Describe the action of a boundedly rational decision maker. 7. Identify the conditions in which individuals are most likely to use intuition in decision making. 8. Describe four styles of decision making. 9. Define heuristics and explain how they bias decisions. 10. Contrast the three ethical decision criteria.
What What Is Is Perception, Perception, and and Why Why Is Is ItIt Important? Important? Peoples Peoples behavior behavior isis based based on on their their perception
perception of of what what reality reality is, is, not not on on reality reality itself. itself. The The world world as as itit isis perceived
perceived isis the the world world that that isis behaviorally behaviorally important. important. Factors FactorsThat That Influence Influence Perception Perception
EXHIBIT 5-1 Person Person Perception: Perception: Making Making Judgments Judgments About About Others Others Distinctiveness: Distinctiveness:shows
Errors and and Biases Biases in in Attributions Attributions Errors Errors and and Biases Biases in in Attributions Attributions (contd) (contd) Frequently Frequently Used
Used Shortcuts Shortcuts in in Judging Judging Others Others Frequently Frequently Used Used Shortcuts Shortcuts in in Judging Judging Others Others Frequently Frequently Used
Used Shortcuts Shortcuts in in Judging Judging Others Others Specific Specific Applications Applications in in Organizations Organizations Employment Interview Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers judgments of applicants. Performance Expectations
Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities. Performance Evaluations Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance. Employee Effort Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias. The The Link Link Between
Between Perceptions Perceptions and and Individual Individual Decision Decision Making Making Perceptions Perceptions of ofthe the decision decision maker
maker Outcomes Assumptions Assumptions of of the the Rational Rational Decision-Making Decision-Making Model Model 1. 1. 2. 2.
Problem Problemclarity clarity Known Knownoptions options 3. 3. 4. 4. Clear Clearpreferences preferences
Constant Constant preferences preferences No Notime timeor orcost cost constraints constraints Maximum Maximumpayoff payoff 5.
5. 6. 6. Steps Steps in in the the Rational Rational Decision-Making Decision-Making Model Model EXHIBIT 5-3
The The Three Three Components Components of of Creativity Creativity EXHIBIT 5-4 How How Are Are Decisions Decisions Actually Actually Made
Made in in Organizations Organizations How How Are Are Decisions Decisions Actually Actually Made Made in in Organizations Organizations (contd) (contd) How/Why problems are identified
Visibility over importance of problem Attention-catching, high profile problems Desire to solve problems Self-interest (if problem concerns decision maker) Alternative Development Satisficing: seeking the first alternative that solves problem. Engaging in incremental rather than unique problem solving through successive limited comparison of alternatives to the current alternative in effect. Making Making Choices
Choices Making Making Choices Choices Decision-Style Decision-Style Model Model EXHIBIT 5-5 Organizational Organizational Constraints
Constraints on on Decision Decision Makers Makers Performance Evaluation Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions. Reward Systems Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the organization. Formal Regulations Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices of decision makers. System-imposed Time Constraints
Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines. Historical Precedents Past decisions influence current decisions. Cultural Cultural Differences Differences in in Decision Decision Making Making
Problems selected Time orientation Importance of logic and rationality Belief in the ability of people to solve problems Preference for collect decision making Ethics Ethics in in Decision Decision Making Making Ethical Decision Criteria Utilitarianism Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number.
Rights Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals. Justice Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially. Ethics Ethics in in Decision Decision Making Making Ethics and National Culture There are no global ethical standards. The ethical principles of global organizations
that reflect and respect local cultural norms are necessary for high standards and consistent practices.
Although most published renderings of the divertor show it as a flat plate, it is actually required to be curved, with a single radius, as shown in the preceding slides. The divertor is a heat exchanger with plasma-facing armor covering...
Investigation of Carbohydrate Malabsorption. Stool Reducing Sugar. This test measures unabsorbed sugars in stool. It is used to evaluate the body's ability to digest carbohydrates, or to absorb nutrients from food and drinks.
What is Elliptic Curve Cryptography? Discrete Log Problem. The security of ECC is due the intractability or difficulty of solving the inverse operation of finding k given Q and P. This is termed as the discrete log problem. Methods to...
6.2 How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms Steps in Mechanisms Types of Steps in Reaction Mechanisms Indicating Steps in Mechanisms 6.3 Radical Reactions Steps in Radical Substitution Steps in Radical Substitution: Monochlorination of Methane Slide 13 In a radical chain reaction,...
Prasyarat Reproduksi Sehat Supaya tidak terjadi kelainan anatomis - fisiologis perempuan harus memiliki ronggga pinggul yang cukup besar untuk mempermudah persalinan; memiliki kelenjar penghasil hormon reproduksi yang sehat DIPERLUKAN GIZI YANG ADEKUAT Diperlukan landasan psikis yang kuat dan memadai dimulai...
saying the opposite of what you mean; sarcasm. Dramatic Irony: Occurs when the reader knows something the character doesn't. Can be used to create tension, suspense, and/or humor. Situational Irony: when what happens is the opposite of what the reader...
Closer to home, CCP4 is also organising a series of Protein Crystallography Masterclasses at Daresbury, in conjunction with the PX group at the Laboratory. So far these have covered topics such as data processing, scaling, and refinement, and have focused...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!