Organizing the Elements

Organizing the Elements

The Periodic Table Organizing the Elements Protons = 37 Atomic Mass = 85.47 Your Periodic Table unknown

17 Val. Electrons = 1 Class. = Alkali Metal State = solid Density = 1.532 g/mL Color = silvery white Char. = soft metal, reacts easily, violent reaction with water

unknown 37 ? 32-40 Protons = 17 Atomic Mass = 35.45 Val. Electrons = 7 Class.= Halogen (n-m)

? 84-88 State = gas Density = 0.00321 g/mL Color = yellowish green Char. = reacts easily, respiratory irritant, natural The Periodic Table of Elements

Mendeleevs Periodic Table Elements were arranged horizontally by increasing atomic mass. Elements were grouped vertically according to similar characteristics Mendeleevs Breakthrough An elements properties can be predicted based on its location in the periodic table. Mendeleev was able to predict the existence of

5 yet-to-be-discovered elements Prediction Ekaaluminium (1871): atomic mass = 68 density = 6.0 Ekasilicon (1871): atomic mass = 72 density = 5.5 color = grey Discovered

Gallium (1875): atomic mass = 69.72 density = 5.904 Germanium (1886): atomic mass = 72.61 density = 5.35 color = grey The Modern Periodic Table Elements are now arranged by increasing atomic number (number of p+).

Mendeleevs table used atomic mass (# of p+ and n0) Elements in vertical columns share similar characteristics. This creates a repeating pattern of characteristics as you move across each row. The word periodic means regular, repeated pattern. Inside the Boxes

4 Important Facts about the Elements 6 12.011 C Carbon Atomic Number 6

Element Symbol C Element Name Atomic Mass (atomic weight) Carbon 12.011

Inside the Boxes 4 Important Facts about the Elements Element Name Duh Element Symbol 1, 2, or 3 letters that represent the name of the element The symbol may or may not be similar to the English name of the element Many derive from the Latin name of the element

Atomic Number The number of protons (p+)found in the nucleus Atomic Mass The average number of protons (p+) and neutrons (n0) in the nucleus a.m.u. (atomic mass unit) = mass of 1 proton or 1 neutron Organization GROUPS 18 vertical columns

Each group is numbered (# on top of columns) Also called, families (i.e. the lithium family) Elements in a family share similar characteristics Valence Electrons (groups 1-2, 13- Interesting Element Families

Group 1 (Alkali Metals) are all metals that react violently with water. Group 11 (Copper Family) are all metals that react with water slowly or not at all. Group 18 (Noble Gases) rarely react at all! Organization

PERIODS 7 horizontal rows Each period is numbered (# on left of rows) Las and Acs are part of period 6 and 7 Arranged based on the configuration of electrons (implications in chemical bonding) Periods display a repeating pattern of

Patterns in the Table # of p+ increases left to right Patterns in the Table atomic mass increases left to right similar characteristics 1 elements in groups share #s of valence e- 8 2

3 4 5 6 7 increasing density down the columns Alkaline Earth Metals Alkali Metals Transition Metals Lanthanides

Actinides Noble Gasses Halogens - s ds on al oi N et all M et M

classifications G standard state G s se as L

Solids L Synthetic S Synthetic

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