Overview of Business Finance (acc501) - Ning

Overview of Business Finance (acc501) - Ning

An Overview of Business Finance (acc501) Lecture # 01-22 Finance Four basic areas of Finance: 1. Business Finance: Addresses three questions; i. ii. iii. What long-term investments should the firm engage in? i.e Fixed assets (Capital Budgeting) How can the firm raise the money for the required investments? i.e Liability side (Capital

Structure) How much short-term cash flow does a company need to pay its bills? i.e current assets current liabilities (Working Capital Management) 2.Investments: Deals with financial assets as bonds and stocks. 3. Financial Institutions: Banks and insurance companies etc. 4. International Finance: Covers international aspects of corporate finance, investment and financial institutions. Why study Finance? Marketing and Finance

Accounting and Finance Management and Finance What is Business Finance? In order to start any new business, the following issues become vital o What long-term investment should be taken on? o From where to get the long-term financing to pay for investment? Bring in other owners or borrow the money? o How to manage everyday financial activities? The Financial Manager Try to make smart investment decisions. Try to make smart financing decisions. Hypothetical Organization Chart: Board of Directors CEO

COO CFO Treasure Controller Business Finance and Financial Manager Financial Management Decisions o Capital Budgeting o Capital Structure o Working Capital Management Gross working capital (total current assets) Net working capital (current assets-current liabilities)

1. Capital Budgeting decisions What long-term investments should the firm engage in? Fixed Assets Tangible Intangible 2. The Capital Structure decision How can the firm raise money for the required investments? Current Liabilities Long-term debt Shareholders equity 3. The Net Working Capital Investment Decision

How much short-term cash flows does a company need to pay its bills? Net working capital Current assets-current liabilities Forms of Business Organization Three major forms o Sole proprietorship o Partnership General Limited o Corporation Limited Liability Company SEPARATION OF OWNERSHIP

AND CONTROL Agency Problem Agency relationship o Principal hires an agent to represent their interest o Stockholders (principals) hire managers (agents) to run the company Agency problem o Conflict of interest between principal and agent Management goals and agency costs Managerial Goals: Managerial goals may be different from shareholder goals. The firm and the Financial markets Financial markets

Primary markets Secondary markets Dealer Vs Auction markets 1. Balance sheet Snapshot of the firm Assets=Liabilities + Owners equity Balance sheet analysis: 1. Accounting Liquidity 2. Debt Vs Equity 3. Value Vs Cost The Use of debt in a firms capital structure is called Financial Leverage in the sense that it magnifies both gains and losses. 2. Income Statement Video recording

Net income is the bottom line. Income=Revenue-Expenses i. Operation Section: ii. Firms revenues and expenses from principal operations. Non-operating Section: Financing costs such as interest expense etc. iii. Separate Section: Taxes (current and deferred)

(cont) Income statement analysis: GAAP i. ii. Realization principle Matching principle Non-cash items i. Depreciation ii. Deferred tax Time and cost i. ii.

Product cost Period cost Taxes : Average Vs Marginal rates Flat tax rates Depreciation as a tax shield Financial cash flows Financial cash flows: Cash flow from assets = Cash flow to creditors + Cash flow to stockholders Cash flow from assets: (3 components) i. Operating cash flow= EBIT + Depreciation Current tax ii.

Capital Spending= Purchase of fixed assets sale of fixed assets iii. Changes in Net Working Capital: represents the net increase in current assets over current liabilities. Cash flow to creditors(bondholders)=Interest paidNet new borrowings or Debt = Interest + Retirement of debt New debt sales Cash flow to Stockholders=Dividends Paid Net new equity raised or = Dividend + Repurchase of stock Proceed from new stock issue 3. Cash flow statement There is an official accounting statement called the

statement of cash flows. This helps explain the change in accounting cash. The statement of cash flows is the addition of cash flows from operations, cash flows from investing activities, and cash flows from financing activities. The three components of the statement of cash flows are o Cash flow from operating activities o Cash flow from investing activities o Cash flow from financing activities (cont) Cash flow from Operating activities To calculate cash flow from operations, start with net income, add back noncash items like depreciation and adjust for changes in current assets and liabilities (other than cash).

Cash flow from investing activities involves changes in capital assets, acquisition of fixed assets and sales of fixed assets (i.e. net capital expenditures). Cash flow from Financing activities Cash flows to and from creditors and owners include changes in equity and debt. Significance of financial statements These statements are the primary means of communicating financial information both within and outside the firm. The reason, we rely on accounting figures for much of our financial information is that we are almost always unable to obtain all of market information we want.

Uses of Statement Analysis: External Uses of Statement Analysis: Trade Creditors -- Focus on the liquidity of the firm. Bondholders -- Focus on the long-term cash flow of the firm. Shareholders -- Focus on the profitability and long-term health of the firm. Internal Uses of Statement Analysis: Plan -- Focus on assessing the current financial position and evaluating potential firm opportunities. Control -- Focus on return on investment for various assets and asset efficiency. Understand -- Focus on understanding how suppliers of funds analyze the firm. Standardized Financial Statements It is almost impossible to directly compare the financial statements for two companies

because of differences in size. 1. Common-Size Statements: work with percentages instead of dollars. a standardized financial statement presenting all items in percentages is called a commonsize statement. Balance sheet items are shown as a percentage of total assets and income statement items as a percentage of sales. (cont) Although an organizations common-size statements provide a better analytical insight into its strength and standing, yet its performance and efficiency can be better judged by comparing these with those of the firms competitors. Another way of avoiding the problems involved in

comparing companies of different sizes, is to calculate and compare financial ratios. One problem with ratios is that different people and different sources frequently dont compute them in exactly the same way. (cont.) 2. Ratio analysis: Financial ratios are traditionally grouped into the following categories; Short-term solvency, or liquidity, ratios Ability to pay bills in the short-run

Long- term solvency, or financial leverage, ratios Ability to meet long-term obligations Asset management, or turnover, ratios Intensity and efficiency of asset use Profitability ratios Ability to control expenses Market value ratios

Going beyond financial statements Ratio analysis(cont.) Short-term solvency, or liquidity, ratios Current Ratio= Current assets / current liabilities Quick(acid-test) Ratio= Current assetsInventory / current liabilities Cash Ratio= Cash / current liabilities Long- term solvency, or financial leverage, ratios Total Debt ratio= Total assets-Total equity / Total assets i. ii. Debt-equity ratio= Total debt / Total equity Equity multiplier= Total assets / Total equity or = 1 + debt-equity ratio

Interest Coverage Ratio/Times Interest Earned Ratio = EBIT / Interest (cont.) Long- term solvency, or financial leverage, ratios(cont) Cash Coverage Ratio= EBIT-Depreciation / Interest Asset management, or turnover, ratios The measures in this section are sometimes called Asset

Utilization Ratios. These are intended to describe how efficiently or intensively a firm uses its assets to generate sales. Inventory Turnover Ratio= Cost of goods sold / Inventory Days Sales in Inventory= 365 / Inventory turnover Receivables Turnover= Sales(credit) / Accounts receivables Days Sales in Receivables= 365 / Receivables turnover Payables Turnover= Cost of goods sold / Accounts payable Days to turn-over the payables= 365 / Payable turnover Total Asset turnover= Sales / Total assets Capital Intensity Ratio= Total assets / Sales (cont.) Profitability ratios measures how efficiently the firm uses its assets and how efficiently the firm manages its operations. The focus in this group is on the bottom line net income.

Profit Margin= Net income(after interest & tax) / Sales Return on Assets(ROA)= Net income / Total assets Return on Equity(ROE)= Net income / Total equity Market value ratios These measures can be calculated directly only for publicly traded companies. Earnings per Share= Net income / Shares outstanding Price- Earning Ratio= Price per share / Earning per share Book Value per share= Total equity / No. of shares outstanding Market-to-Book ratio= Market value per share / Book value per share The Du Pont Identity The difference between the two profitability measures, ROA and ROE, is the use of debt financing, or financial leverage.

The relationship between these measures can be illustrated by decomposing ROE into its component parts. ROE= Net income / sales * Sales / Assets * Assets / Total equity So, ROE = Profit Margin Total Assets Turnover Equity Multiplier And Return on Assets= Net income / sales * Sales / Assets The Du Pont identity tells us that ROE is affected by three things: o Operating efficiency (as measured by profit margin) o Asset use efficiency (as measured by total assets turnover) o Financial Leverage (as measured by equity multiplier) (cont.) Dividend Payout= Cash dividend / Net Income Retention Ratio= Retained Earnings / Net income

The retention ratio is also known as the plowback ratio, as this is the amount which is plowed back into the business. This ratio is denoted by b. Internal and Sustainable Growth The important thing to recognize is that if sales are to grow, assets have to grow as well, at least over the long run. If assets are to grow, then the firm must somehow obtain money to pay for the purchases. A firm has two broad sources of financing: o Internal financing simply refers to what the firm earns and subsequently plows back into the business. o External financing refers to funds raised by

either borrowing money or selling stock. (cont) i. Internal Growth Rate Internal growth rate represents how rapidly the firm grows. Internal Growth rate= ROA*b / (1-ROA)*b Where ROA is return on assets and b is the retention ratio. ii. Sustainable Growth Rate If a firm only relies on the internal financing, then through time, its total debt ratio will decline, because assets will

grow but total debt will remain the same (or even fall if some is paid off). Sustainable Growth Rate= ROE*b / (1-ROE)*b The maximum growth rate that can be achieved is called the Sustainable Growth Rate. Sustainable Growth rate(cont) The sustainable growth rate illustrates the explicit relationship between the firms four major areas of concern: o Operating efficiency (as measured by profit margin) o Asset use efficiency (as measured by total assets turnover) o Financial policy (as measured by the debtequity ratio) o Dividend policy (as measured by the retention

ratio) USING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS INFORMATION 1. Why Evaluate Financial Statements Primary reason for looking at the accounting information is that we dont have and cant expect to get market value information. But if we have such information, we will use it instead of accounting data. If there is a conflict between accounting and market data, market data would be preferred. Internal Uses: I. Performance Evaluation

Planning for the future II. External Uses: Customers: Suppliers: Competitors Acquisition of new firms (cont..) 2. Choosing a Benchmark Benchmarking is to establish a standard to follow for comparison. Compare the performance over a certain period of time.

Some methods of benchmarking are: o Time-Trend analysis o Peer Group Analysis i. Time-Trend Analysis: ii. Based on the historical data of the firm Compare with our firms history Peer Group Analysis: Compare with other firms 3. Problems with Financial Statements Analysis:

Time Value of Money It refers to the fact that a dollar in hand today is worth more than a dollar promised at some time in future. Simple Interest vs. Compound Interest: Simple interest Interest is calculated by multiplying principal (amount invested) by rate (% of interest) multiplied by time (number of periods the interest is calculated). This is called simple interest. I = P x r x t Compound interest Earning interest on interest For multiple periods Its value will be larger than simple interest. I = P x r^t

(cont) 1. Future Value (FV/C1): One-period case formula FV = C0(1 + r) Multi-period case formula FV = C0(1 + r)t (1 + r)t is Future Value Interest Factor(FVIF) 2. Present Value (PV/C0): One-period case formula PV = FV/(1+r)

Multi-period case formula PV= FV/(1 + r)t or PV= FV*1/(1 + r)t 1/(1 + r)t is Present Value Interest Factor(PVIF) or Discount Factor. Points to remember: FV and PV equals at 0% rate. Positive relation between FV and interest rates. Negative/Inverse relation between PV and interest rates (cont) Finding r(rate) with an example; FV = C x (1+ r)t $50,000 = $5,000 x (1+ r)12 (1+ r)12= $50,000 / $5,000 (1+ r)12= 10 (1+ r)1/12= (10)1/12

1 + r = 1.2115 r = 1.2115 1 r = .2115 Finding Number of periods(t); FV = C0 (1+r)t $10,000 = $5,000 (1+0.10)t 10,000/5000= (1.10)t ( 1.10)t = 2 In(1.10)t = ln2 t=In2/In(1.10) t=0.6931/0.0953 t= 7.27 Years Finding the Number of Periods: Rule of 72 t = 72 / r% (cont)

Valuation of multiple cash flows: Future value with multiple cash flows; Present value with multiple cash flows; Discounting each cash flows separately OR Discounting back one period at a time. Annuities and Perpetuities Annuities: Series of equal installments for a loan repayment. Two types of annuity; Ordinary annuity: A series of constant, or level, cash flows that occur at the end of each period for some fixed number of periods is called an ordinary Annuity. Annuity Due: An Annuity due is an annuity for which cash flows occur at the beginning of each period. When you lease an asset, the first lease payment is usually due immediately, second at the beginning of second period and so on. Annuity due value = Ordinary annuity value x (1 + r)

1. Present value for annuity cash flows: PV= C*(1-Present value interest factor)/r PV= C*[1-1/(1+r)t]/r Finding the payment Finding the rate OR 2. Annuity Future value: FV= C*(Future value interest factor for annuity-1)/r FV= C*[(1+r)t-1]/r OR Perpetuities: A special case of annuity, where the stream of cash flows continue forever. It has no ending

period. Example is preferred stocks because they dont mature. Perpetuity PV = C / r Effective Annual Rates(EAR) EAR = (1 + Quoted rate / m)m 1 where m is the number of times the interest is compounded. Annual Percentage Rates(APR): APR= interest rate charged per period multiplied by the number of periods per year. Loans Three forms of repayment of principle and interest patterns. o Pure Discount Loans

o Interest-only Loans o Amortized Loans Pure Discount Loans: The borrower receives money today and repays a single lump sum at some time in the future. Interest- Only Loans: Calls for the borrower to pay interest each period and to repay the entire principal at some time in the future. Amortized Loans: Amortized loan requires the borrower to repay parts of the loan amount over time. The process of paying off a loan by making regular principal deductions is called amortizing the loan. Fixed Principal; Borrower pays the interest each period plus some fixed amount, e.g. medium-term business loans. Fixed Payments; Borrower makes a single fixed payment every period, car loans and

mortgages. Bonds An evidence of debt issued by a corporation or a governmental body. When a corporation (or government) wishes to borrow from public on a long term basis, it does so by issuing or selling debt securities generally called bonds. A bond is a secured debt, but the word bond refers to all kinds of secure and unsecured debt. The issuer promises to: Make regular coupon payments every period until the bond matures, and Pay the face/par/maturity value of the bond when it matures. Default - since the abovementioned promises are contractual

obligations, an issuer who fails to keep them is subject to legal action on behalf of the lenders (bondholders). (cont) Bond Values and Yields: The value of bonds may fluctuate as the interest rates change by time in the market place, though the cash flows from a bond remain the same. When interest rates rise, the present value of the bonds remaining cash flows decline and the bond is worth less. When the interest rates fall, the bond is worth more. To determine the value of bond at a particular point in time, we need to know: o No. of periods remaining till maturity, o The face value, o The coupon rate, and o The market interest rate for similar bonds. Yield to Maturity(YTM):

The interest rate required in the market on bonds is called the bonds Yield to Maturity (cont) Bonds cash flows have two components: 1. an annuity component (coupons) and 2. a lump sum (face value paid at maturity) So, Bond value= C*[1-1/(1+r)t]/r + F/(1+r)t Where C*[1-1/(1+r)t]/r is the present value of coupons F/(1+r)t is the present value of face amount. Discount bond: The bond sells for less than face

value, it is said to be a discount bond. Premium bond: When the bond sells for greater than the face value, it is said to be a premium bond. (cont) Points to remember: 1. Maturity time: the time period in which the issuer pays principal to the investor. 2. Coupons: are the regular payments of equal amount in which the issuer pays to the investor periodically. 3. Coupon rate= Annual coupon(C)/Par value 4. Coupon payment= Par value*coupon rate 5. Par value/face value/principal value are the same. 6. Market interest rate/discount rate/interest rate are same. 7. If discount rate=coupon rate then par value will be equal to bond value. 8. If discount rate > coupon rate then par value will be greater than bond value. 9. If discount rate < coupon rate then par value will be less than bond value.

10. Inverse/negative relationship between market interest rate and bond value i.e increasing the rate decreases the bond value and vice versa. 11. Smaller coupon bonds risk is higher than the greater coupon bonds because the mostly amount has been received in early years. (cont) Semiannual coupons: When the payments of coupons are made on semiannually, each payment of half of the annual coupon, it is referred to as semiannual coupon bond. Interest rate risk: The risk that arises for bond owners from fluctuating interest rates is called interest rate risk. The risk on a bond depends on how sensitive its price is to interest rate changes The sensitivity directly depends on Time to maturity

Coupon rate All other things being equal, the longer time to maturity, the grater the interest rate risk All other things being equal, the lower the coupon rate, the greater the interest rate risk (cont) BOND PRICING THEOREMS: Bond prices and market interest rates move in opposite directions. When a bonds coupon rate is (greater than / equal to / less than) the markets required return, the bonds market value will be (greater than / equal to / less than) its par value. Given two bonds identical but for maturity, the price of the longer -term bond will change more than that of the shorterterm bond, for a given change in market interest rates.

Given two bonds identical but for coupon, the price of the lower-coupon bond will change more than that of the highercoupon bond, for a given change in market interest rates. Finding the Yield to Maturity: By trial and error method. Debt vs. Equity Securities issued by the corporations may be classified roughly a: Equity Securities Debt Securities When corporations borrow, they generally promise to Make regular scheduled interest payments, and Repay the original amount borrowed (principal) The main differences between debt and equity are the following: Debt is not an ownership interest in the firm. Creditors generally do not have voting power. Corporations payment of interest on debt is considered as a cost of doing business and is fully tax deductible. While dividends paid to stockholders are not tax-deductible.

Unpaid debt is a liability of the firm. If it is not paid, the creditors can legally claim the assets of the firm, resulting in bankruptcy or financial failure. This possibility does not arise when equity is issued Long term debt Long term debt securities are promises made by the issuing firm to pay principal when due and to make timely interest payments on the unpaid balance. Short term debt: Short-term debt (having maturity of one year or less) is sometimes referred to as unfunded debt. Debt securities are typically called notes, debentures or bonds. Public-issue bonds offered to general public

Privately placed bonds placed with a private lender and not offered to general public Bond Indenture THE BOND INDENTURE: The bond indenture is a contract between the bond issuer and the bondholders. Usually, a trustee(perhaps a bank) is hired by the issuer to protect the bondholders interests. The trust company must: Make sure the terms of indenture are obeyed Manage the sinking fund Represent the bondholders in default The indenture includes: The basic terms of the bond issue

The total amount of bonds issued A description of the security The repayment arrangements The call provisions Details of the protective covenants (cont) 1. Terms of a bond: 2. Security Debt securities are classified as collateral and mortgages used to protect the bondholders Collateral means securities (bonds, stocks) or any asset pledged as security for payment of debt. Mortgage securities are secured by a mortgage on the real

property of the borrower, involving usually real estate. Debenture is an unsecured bond for which no specific pledge of property is made The term note is used for such instruments if the maturity of the bonds is less than 10 years when issued 3. Seniority (Cont.) 4. Repayment Bonds can be repaid at maturity or they may be repaid in part or in entirety before maturity. Earlier repayment is handled through a sinking fund. A sinking fund is an account managed by the bond trustee for the purpose of repayment of bonds 5. Call provision

A call provision allows the company to repurchase, or call part or all of the bond issue at stated prices over a specific period. Generally, the call price is above the bonds stated value (par value). The difference between the call price and the stated value is the call premium. Call provisions are not usually operative during the first part of a bonds life, making it less of a worry for bondholders (cont) 6. Protective covenants: A protective covenant is that part of the indenture or loan agreement that limits certain actions a company might wish to take during the term of the loan. These covenants can be classified into two types: Negative covenants Positive covenants

A negative covenant limits or prohibits actions that company might take. For example: o Limitation on the amount of dividend according to some formula o Restrict pledging assets to other lenders o Barring merger with another firm o Restricting selling or leasing assets o Barring issuance of additional long-term debt. A positive covenant specifies an action that the company agrees to take or a condition the company must abide by. For example: o The firm must maintain its working capital at or above some specified minimum level o The firm must periodically furnish audited financial statements to the lender o The firm must maintain any collateral or security in good condition. Bond Ratings The bond ratings are an assessment of the creditworthiness of the corporate issuer. The definitions of creditworthiness used by the rating agencies are based on how

likely the issuer firm is to default and the protection creditors have in the event of a default. These ratings are concerned only with the possibility of the default. Since they do not address the issue of interest rate risk, the price of a highly rated bond may be quite volatile. Long Term Ratings by PACRA(Pakistan Credit Rating Agency): Investment grades o AAA: Highest credit quality. AAA ratings denote the lowest expectation of credit risk. o AA: Very high credit quality. AA ratings denote a very low expectation of credit risk. o A: High credit quality. A ratings denote a low expectation of credit risk. o BBB: Good credit quality. BBB ratings indicate that there is currently a low expectation of credit risk. Speculative grades o BB: Speculative. BB ratings indicate that there is a possibility of credit risk developing, o B: Highly speculative. B ratings indicate that significant credit risk is present, but a limited margin of safety remains.

o CCC, CC, C: High default risk. Default is a real possibility. (cont.) Short Term Ratings by PACRA o A1+: highest capacity for timely repayment. o A1: strong capacity for timely repayment. o A2: satisfactory capacity for timely repayment may be susceptible to adverse economic conditions. o A3: an adequate capacity for timely repayment. More susceptible to adverse economic conditions. o B: timely repayment is susceptible to adverse changes in business, economic, or financial conditions. o C: an inadequate capacity to ensure timely repayment. o D: high risk of default or which are currently in default. DIFFERENT TYPES OF BONDS Government Bonds:

When the government wishes to borrow money for more than one year, it sells what are known as treasury notes and bonds (mostly in the form of ordinary coupon bond) to the public. Govt. treasury issues have no default risk These issues are exempted from income taxes Zero Coupon Bonds: A bond that pays no coupon at all and is offered at a price that is much lower than its stated value. For tax purposes, the issuer of a zero coupon bond deducts interest every year even though no interest is actually paid. Floating-Rate Bonds: In case of floating rate bonds, the coupon payments are adjustable with respect to an interest rate index such as treasury bills interest rate. Holder has the right to redeem the note at par on the coupon payment date after some specified period of time. This is called a put provision . Coupon rate has a floor and a ceiling i.e. coupon is subjected to a minimum and a maximum.

Thus coupon rate is capped and upper and lower rates are the called the collar. An interesting type of floating rate bonds is an Inflation-linked bond. Such bonds have coupons that are adjusted according to the rate of inflation (the principal amount may be adjusted as well). (cont) Other types of Bonds: Income bonds have coupon payments dependent on company income sufficient enough to support such payment. Convertible bonds can be swapped for a fixed number of shares at any time before maturity at the holders option. Put bonds allows the holder to force the issuer to buy the bond back at a stated price. Inflation and Interest Rates Real rates are interest rates or rates of returns that have been

adjusted for inflation. Real return is the percentage change in the amount of stuff you can actually buy. Nominal rates are not adjusted for inflation. Nominal return is the percentage change in the amount of money you have. The Fisher Effect: The relationship between real and nominal returns is described by the Fisher Effect 1 + R = (1 + r) x (1 + h) where R = the nominal return r = the real return h = the inflation rate Dropping the third component (being very small), nominal rate gives us then approximately equal to: R r + h

Term structure of interest rates The relationship between short- and long-term Interest rates Tells us what nominal interest rates are on default free, pure discount bonds of all maturities These are pure interest rates because they involve no risk of default and a single, lump -sum future payment When long term rates are higher than short term rates we say term structure is upward sloping and vice versa. Determinants of Term Structure Real Rate of Interest Expected Inflation Interest Rate Risk (cont) Real Rate of Interest

When real rate is high, all interest rates will tend to be higher and vice versa. Thus real rate does not really determine the shape of the term structure rather it influences the overall level of interest rates. 2. Prospect for Future inflation It very strongly influences the shape of the term structure. Value of dollar returns on investment for various periods of time may be eroded by future inflation. So investors demand a compensations for this loss in the form of Inflation premium (higher interest rates) Expectation of a higher inflation rate will push long term interest rates higher than short term rates reflected by an upward term structure. 3. Interest Rate Risk Long term bonds have much greater risk of loss resulting from changes in interest rates than do short-term bonds.

Investors recognize this risk and demand extra compensation in the form of higher rates for bearing it. This extra compensation is called the interest rate risk premium. The longer the term to maturity, the greater is the interest rate risk and the interest rate risk premium. Interest rate risk premium increases at a decreasing rate in line with the interest rate risk 1. Bond Yields and the Yield Curve: The only difference is that the term structure is based on pure discount bonds whereas the yield curve is based on coupon bond yields. Treasury notes and bonds have three important features: they are: Default free Taxable Highly liquid

Credit risk is the possibility of default. Investors demand a higher yield as compensation to the risk of possible default. This extra premium is called default risk premium. Government bonds are free from most taxes, and have much lower yield than taxable bonds. Investors demand extra yield on a taxable bond as a compensation for the unfavorable tax treatment, known as taxability premium. Bonds have varying degrees of liquidity. Due to a large number of bonds issued, you may not get as much good price if you want to sell quickly. Investor demand a liquidity premium for the compensation. Common stock valuation Cash flows: Po = (D1+P1)/(1+R) P1= (D2+P2)/(1+R) For 2 periods

P0= D1/(1+R)1 +D2/(1+R)2 + D3/(1+R)3 + P3/(1+R)3 Alternatively, we can say that the price of stock today is equal to the present value of all of future dividends. Zero Growth Stocks: A share of common stock in a company with a constant dividend is termed as zero growth type of stocks, which implies: D1 = D2 = D3 = D = constant So, per share value is: P0= D/R Value of stock: P0= D1/(1+R)1 +D2/(1+R)2 + D3/(1+R)3 + D4/(1+R)4-------

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