Overview on writing

Overview on writing

Overview on research Sinan Kalkan What is research? Find answers, solve problems o In M.Sc., you take the first few steps on how to do research: novelty is not necessary but encouraged. o In Ph.D., you are to prove that you can do research: novelty is a must. The following are critical: o Analyzing data and the results: frog story. o Being precise and conclusive In CS: a. b.

c. d. Propose new solutions/algorithms to problems Compare algorithms/studies Collect data/dataset for studies Propose a formalism, theory, framework CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 2 academic career Undergraduate degree

Master of Science degree Doctor of Philosophy degree Assistant Professor Associate Professor Professor CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 3 What does an academician do?

Teach o Undergraduate courses o Graduate courses Research o Direct projects in hot/new problems o Publish contributions o Attend conferences to present contributions Administrative duties o Dept. Chair, Vice Chair, Committees etc. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 4

Good aspects of being an academician Money Time Infrastructure Flexibility Tourism Wide range of options Moral satisfaction

Poor alternatives CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 5 Doing good research Limits: o Effort o Time o Money Bad influences: o Publications/theses: quality vs. quantity

Advice: o Put a brick on an existing wall. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 6 Overvie w on writing Academic writing, thesis writing and ethical issues Sinan Kalkan Why write?

CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 8 We write Technical reports Conference articles Journal articles

Magazine articles Newspaper articles Books Theses CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 9 Courtesy of Tom Gauld. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 10

Academic Writing Important factors 1. Appearance Spelling, grammar, formatting 2. Writing Style Sentence flow 3. Organization Connect the ideas 4. Content The ideas Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 11 Academic Writing:

Be clear and precise Be clear o Murphys law for academic writing: If it can be misinterpreted, it will misinterpreted. o Choose words wisely. Wrong words may mean ambiguity, misinterpretation etc. Be precise o Avoid words that are unclear (e.g., good, bad, beautiful) o Use descriptive, definite words o Examples: It was a good analysis The analysis addressed three major concerns

Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 12 Academic Writing Avoid absolute words o In academia, nothing is ever certain o Avoid always, exactly, proves, never etc. Examples o Figure 3 proves that

o Figure 3 shows that or In Figure 3, we see that o Deer mice never eat insects o Deer mice are not known to eat insects Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 13 Academic Writing Check word meanings o English is a second language for us o Check meanings of words if in doubt Many complications with prepositions especially:

o Between: Comparing two things o Among: Comparing many things o Example: I have a hard time choosing between Hamlet and Macbeth. Among The Tempest, Othello and Julius Caesar, I would choose Othello. Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 14 Academic Writing

Affect vs. effect Lose vs. loose But vs. However So vs. Therefore Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 15 Academic Writing Be concise o o

o o Shortening the text without impacting clarity Not the same as brevity Usually improves clarity If a word or phrase can be removed or shortened without losing meaning, do it Repeating information o The end result, future plans o The result, plans Unnecessary modifiers o Words that add little o Example: Achieving peace without some kind of armistice is impossible. Achieving peace without an armistice is impossible.

Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 16 Academic Writing Unnecessary long descriptions o For the reason that o In light of the fact that o BECAUSE Filler words like there is, there are, it is o There is evidence to suggest that fumigation causes... o Evidence suggests fumigation causes...

Proactive solutions o Active Voice o Positive Form o Subordination Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 17 Academic Writing Active voice o Subject is acting, not being acted upon o More direct and usually cuts out words o Examples: Passive: The shoulder was rotated 70 degrees

Active: We rotated the shoulder 70 degrees Passive: In this thesis, a method for recognizing sign language gestures captured from a Kinect device is proposed Active: I propose a method for recognizing sign language gestures captured from a Kinect device. Not used in all disciplines o Science: Saline was added to treatment A. I added saline to treatment A. Treatment A contained saline. Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 18

Academic Writing Positive form o Convert negative phrases into positive o Eliminates phrases like does not, will not o Examples: Method X does not perform very well on dataset A. Method X performs better on dataset B. Deer mice have not been shown to eat insects. Deer mice primarily eat seeds and roots. Subordination o Restructuring clauses within other clauses o Changes the relative importance, but also eliminates a lot of words o Examples: The procedure was used to extract magnetite, and it took five steps. The procedure was used to extract magnetite in five steps.

The five-step procedure was used to extract magnetite. The five-step procedure extracted magnetite. Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 19 In summary Your text should be: o Concise/Precise/Specific o Clear o Elegant in every aspect CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan

2/1/20 20 CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 21 CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 22 Technical Details

CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 23 Format & Editor Credit: JL Blanco 1. 2. 3. 4. Use Latex Use Latex Use Latex If not possible,

o Use Latex Templates are ready to use on fbe.metu.edu.tr There are very good editors available o o TexStudio & TeXnicCenter on Windows Eclipse, Kile etc. on Linux CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20

24 Figures, Equations, Tables etc. Number your figures, tables, algorithms o And refer to them o Order them based on their referral order Number your equations even if you dont refer to them Captions o Should be descriptive and precise o Captions are placed above tables and algorithms, and below figures CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan

2/1/20 25 Figures Use scalable vector graphics Not bitmap SHOW EXAMPLE FILES CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 26 Equations Equations should be thought of as

being part of the text Therefore, they should end with a dot or a comma. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 27 Formal Explanation of a Method Introduce symbols o Dont use the same symbol for two different meanings in a text Write your steps as equations o The method looks for all possible parameter values and chooses the one that maximizes the total weighted cost values

o The method finds Be precise Multiplication symbol in mathematics and programming o multiplication in math (\times command in Latex) o convolution (multiplication operation in Programming) CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 28 Sorting: Problem definition Sorting is the problem of

rearranging the numbers such that they are in increasing order. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan vs. Given a set of numbers , , sorting is finding a permutation of , such that: o , and o for any 2/1/20

30 Acronyms First introduce If in doubt, introduce If introduced, use it Dont introduce if you dont use it (e.g., in abstract) Adapted from: www.sds.uwo.ca/writing CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20

31 References Things are very easy in Latex o Use bibtex for organizing and using your references FBE and journals have templates for this. Use them. Google scholar is very useful in this aspect o DEMONSTRATION HERE CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 32

Ethical Issues CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 33 Collaboration & Attribution Acknowledge your collaborators Add them as authors if necessary o If in doubt, ask them Author ordering is very critical. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan

2/1/20 34 Research Mis-conduct Use all results o Dont hide data/results/datasets that are not in accordance with your hypotheses Use correct results o Dont use painted results Dont submit an article to multiple sources in parallel Dont argue/submit what you havent done Cite everything that you use o Software, code, document, figure, table etc.

CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 35 Research misconduct Video series: Do scientists cheat? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VooaLRqTSPI CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 36 Plagiarism From Latin word plagiarius (~ kidnapper, stealer)

In Turkish, o arma, intihal. From Wikipedia: o Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work. The idea remains problematic with unclear definitions and unclear rules. The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement. o Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions like penalties, suspension, and even expulsion. o Plagiarism is not a crime per se but in academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense,[6][7] and cases of plagiarism can constitute copyright infringement. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan

2/1/20 37 Plagiarism Wikipedia: o According to T. Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone uses words, ideas, or work products: Attributable to another identifiable person or source Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary Other definitions from different universities (Wikipedia): o "use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form.

o "... use of another's work, words, or ideas without attribution, o "... using a source's language without quoting, using information from a source without attribution, and paraphrasing a source in a form that stays too close to the original. o "deliberate" use of "someone else's language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 38 Plagiarism Wikipedia: Common forms of student plagiarism: 1. Submitting someones work as their own. 2. Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations.

3. Re-writing someones work without properly citing sources. 4. Using quotations, but not citing the source. 5. Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing. 6. Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited. 7. Melding together cited and uncited sections of the piece. 8. Providing proper citations, but fails to change the structure and wording of the borrowed ideas enough. 9. Inaccurately citing the source. 10.Relying too heavily on other peoples work. Fails to bring original thought into the text. CEng 591 - Sinan Kalkan 2/1/20 39

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