P11221 - Noise Reduction for Internal Combustion Engines

P11221 - Noise Reduction for Internal Combustion Engines

P11221 - Noise Reduction for Internal Combustion Engines Team Leader: Christopher Morehouse Mechanical Engineers: - Julie Maier - Caroline Bills - Ted Zachwieja Faculty Advisor: Ed Hanzlik Customer: Dr. Alan Nye Agenda

Problem Overview Project Objectives Customers and Users Project Flow Chart & Plan Engine Model Overview Design Options

Design Feasibility Next Steps Questions & Discussions Background Noise abatement - growing field Formula SAE Sound Constraints Conventional Methods Reduce Performance No RIT Background in this Field Multiple Applications Possible Customer: Users: Dr. Nye

Formula SAE Team EE 2010-2 Team Project Scope Investigate physics of sound generation and transmission Identify and locate major noise contributors in ICE Analyze and model noise generation of ICE Propose design for noise reduction mechanism Provide background to EE team for parallel ANC project Provide noise reduction demonstrator for Spring 2011 ImagineRIT Project Deliverables

Engine Sound Model ANC System Constraints Demonstrator for ImagineRIT Project Overview Project Breakdown Research Topics Electrical (ANC) NOISE REDUCTION Analyze

SAE Engine Mechanical Proposals Detailed Project Breakdown Packaging & Layout Research Topics Specs & Documents

Sound Electrical (ANC) NOISE REDUCTION Sound Generation Mechanical Proposals Analyze SAE Engine

Passive Active Gather Data (Engine Characterization) Resonator Absorptive Resonator Internal Combustion Engine

Current Muffler/Exhaust Systems Customer Needs Engineering Specifications Relationship Diagram ES 1 Reduce noise level

ES 4 Passes B10.2.1 of the SAE Formula rules ES 7 Component Costs ES 12 Change in Engine Max Power The Plan ID 1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Task Name Project Planning Obtain Customer Needs (continuous) Define Engineering Specifications Create Preliminary Plan Define Possible Risks (preliminary)

Create / Define Team Norms & Values Choose Team Leader Benchmarking / Research Physics of Sound Sound Measurement Internal Combustion Engine Current Noise Reduction Methods Concept Generation (Noise Reduction) Contact Acoustics Experts (D-R & Dr. Wyffels) Validate Assumptions Become Familiar with Sound in Mufflers Research Absorption Materials - Muffler Design Research Anti-Phase Design Create List of Design Options System Analysis

Feasibility Study of Available Designs Risk Assessment - Updated Obtain Actual Sound Exhaust Recording & Measurements Create Visual Aids - Exhaust System Layout (black boxes) Compile Presentation & Practice Perform System Level Design Review Duration Start Finish 15 days 8 days

8 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 7 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 10 days 2 days 2 days 12 days 2 days

7 days 4 days 5 days 3 days 1 day 2 days 1 day 2 day 1 day Fri 9/10/10 Fri 9/10/10 Fri 9/17/10 Thu 9/23/10 Thu 9/23/10

Thu 9/23/10 Thu 9/23/10 Fri 9/10/10 Fri 9/10/10 Fri 9/10/10 Fri 9/10/10 Fri 9/10/10 Fri 9/24/10 Mon 9/27/10 Mon 10/4/10 Fri 9/24/10 Wed 9/29/10 Fri 9/24/10 Fri 10/1/10 Mon 10/4/10

Mon 10/4/10 Wed 10/6/10 Mon 10/4/10 Wed 10/6/10 Wed 10/6/10 Fri 10/8/10 Fri 9/24/10 Fri 9/17/10 Fri 9/24/10 Thu 9/23/10 Thu 9/23/10 Thu 9/23/10 Thu 9/23/10 Thu 9/16/10 Thu 9/16/10

Thu 9/16/10 Thu 9/16/10 Thu 9/16/10 Tue 10/5/10 Tue 9/28/10 Tue 10/5/10 Tue 10/5/10 Thu 9/30/10 Thu 9/30/10 Mon 10/4/10 Fri 10/8/10 Wed 10/6/10 Thu 10/7/10 Tue 10/5/10 Wed 10/6/10

Thu 10/7/10 Fri 10/8/10 September 10 17 24 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x Concrete Date Topic Task complete task

1 October 8 15 22 29 x x x x x x x

x x x The Plan ID 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

49 50 51 Task Name Engine Characterization Define Process & Inputs Look at Current Formula car Determine Sensors & Equipment need Acquire Sensors & Other Equipment (if needed) Set-up Formula Car for Testing Obtain Data from Formula Car Analyze Data - Create "Map" of engine Detailed Design Analysis Update Risk Assessment

Develop Best Mechancial Option(s) Develop System Layout (Anti-Phase Design) Develop Packaging (Anti-Phase Design) Final Design Analysis Update Risk Assessment Formalize Engine Characterization results Compile Data & Information for EE's Perform Detailed Design Review Project Review Perform Project Review Complete & upload all documentation on EDGE MSD II Preparation / Planning Order materials and parts needed Create Specification Sheet and Summary for EE's Create WBS and Plan / Schedule

x Duration Start Finish 7 days 2 day 1 day 1 day 5 days 1 day

1 day 2 days 28 days 1 day 28 days 28 days 28 days 7 days 1 day 2 days 2 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 3 days

7 days 2.5 mo 2 days 6 days Mon 10/4/10 Mon 10/4/10 Fri 10/8/10 Tue 10/5/10 Tue 10/5/10 Thu 10/14/10 Thu 10/14/10 Thu 10/14/10 Sat 10/9/10 Sat 10/9/10

Sat 10/9/10 Sat 10/9/10 Sat 10/9/10 Wed 11/3/10 Thu 11/4/10 Wed 11/3/10 Wed 11/3/10 Fri 11/5/10 TBD TBD Mon 11/15/10 Mon 11/15/10 Mon 11/15/10 Tue 11/16/10 Fri 11/12/10

Thu 10/14/10 Tue 10/5/10 Fri 10/8/10 Tue 10/5/10 Sat 10/9/10 Thu 10/14/10 Thu 10/14/10 Fri 10/15/10 Thu 11/4/10 Sat 10/9/10 Thu 11/4/10 Thu 11/4/10 Thu 11/4/10 Thu 11/4/10

Thu 11/4/10 Thu 11/4/10 Thu 11/4/10 Fri 11/5/10 TBD TBD Wed 11/17/10 Wed 11/17/10 Mon 2/28/11 Wed 11/17/10 Wed 11/17/10 September 10 17 24

1 Concrete Date Topic Task complete task October 8 15 22 29 x x x

November 5 12 19 Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Research & Benchmarking Sound is Pressure http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/ noise_cancellation.htm

How We Measure Sound Digital Signal Processing Decibel Meters Sound Pressure Indicators IC Engine Sources Pressure Waves Engine Model MECHANICAL DESIGN OPTIONS

Current Design Glass Pack Low Flow Restriction Low Noise Attenuation Unpacked Concentric Tube Resonators Design #1: Single-pass Design #2: Multi-pass Passive http://www.eastsidemufflers.com/mufflers.htm

Design #1: Single-pass Resonating Chamber Inner Pipe Exhaust Gas Flow Sound Waves Holes in pipe Design #2: Multi-pass

Exhaust Gas Flow Resonating Chamber Exhaust Gas Flow Packed Concentric Tubes Design #3: Metal Foam Design #4: Full Length of the Exhaust System Design #5: Rock Wool and Stainless Steel Wool www.stainlessworks.net

Designs #3 & #4: Metal Foams www.bundesregierung.de Foams Permeability Pore Size Level of Reticulation Absorption Area Length

Curves Thickness Scott Acoustical Laboratories Foams www.bundesregierung.de Optimal Foam Structure Industrial Noise Control Handbook. Cheremisinoff and Cheremisinoff Absorption Area

Industrial Noise Control Handbook. Cheremisinoff and Cheremisinoff Metal Foams Available in a variety of densities Available in a variety of pore sizes ERG Duocel Test kit en route Aluminum

Copper Silicon Carbide Reticulated Vitreous Carbon (RVC) ERG Duocel Metal Foams ERGaerospace.com Design #5: Rock Wool A fibrous insulation made from basalt

Custom Muffler and Auto Repair, LA Cone Engineering, Inc., CA MagnaFlow Exhaust Rock Wool Design #7: Exhaust Silencer Insert Applied to exhaust tip Reflects Sound Waves back into exhaust stream Design #8: Active Single-pass Frequency Data

Moves laterally Exhaust Gas Flow Resonating Chamber Design #9: Active Multi-pass Moves laterally Frequency Data Resonating Chamber Exhaust Gas Flow

ELECTRICAL DESIGN OPTION Design #10: Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) This generates more sound by the adding of two waves. ANC continued Introducing a wave 180 degrees out of phase of the targeted noise being cancelled.

How ANC Applies to Cars Three Major components of sound generation occur in a car Dominating noise comes from the muffler Feed Forward Control Feedback Control http://focus.ti.com.cn/cn/lit/an/spra042/spra042.pdf Installation Options CONCEPT SELECTION

List of Design Options Current Glass Pack* 1. Unpacked Concentric Tube Resonator 2. Multi-pass Resonator 3. Metal Foam* 4. Entire Length of Exhaust System Wrapped 5. Lava Rock/Rockwool and Stainless Steel Wool* 6. Multiple Exhaust Pipes (Combination) 7. End Cap Silencer (Combination) 8. ANC 9. Variable Length Resonator - Single Pass 10. Variable Length Resonator - Multiple Pass Criterion List Criteria

Importance Importance (%) 3% Ease of Manufacture 1 3% Ease of Application 1 30% Noise Reduction 9 10% Power Usage 3 3% System Life

1 10% Weight 3 10% Cost 3 30% Effect on Back Pressure 9 Simple Concept Matrix Simple Concept Matrix (cont.)

Simple Concept Matrix (cont.) Weighted Concept Screening Matrix Weighted Concept Screening Matrix Weighted Concept Screening Matrix Results # 0 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Design Current Glass Pack* Unpacked Concentric Tube Resonator Multipass Resonator Metal Foam*

Entire Length of Exhaust System Wrapped Multiple Exhaust Pipes (Combination) End Cap Silencer (Combination) ANC Variable Length Resonator - Single Pass Variable Length Resonator - Multiple Pass Lava Rock/Rockwool and Stainless Steel Wool* Score Score - Expert Score w/o Noise Continue? 0 0 0 NO 1.23 0.63 0.48

YES 1.40 -0.40 -1.86 NO 0.43 -0.67 YES 0.17 2.27 -1.05 NO 0.23 0.23 -0.95

1.30 1.43 -0.70 -2.50 -4.86 YES 1.77 0.27 -1.33 YES 0.67 -1.13 -2.90 NO 0.70

-0.29 YES Resulting Design Options Unpacked Concentric Tube Resonator Packed Concentric Tube: Metal Foam Lava Rock/Rockwool and Stainless Steel Wool Variable Length Resonator - Single Pass ANC (End Cap Silencer, Multiple Exhaust Pipes) Critical Action Items Action Item

Design Commitment Data Collection (CB) Engine Model (CM) Design Resonator (JM) Detailed BOM & Budget (CB) Detailed ANC Component Requirements (TZ) Detailed ANC Layout & Mounting Schematic (TZ) Goal Oct. 14 Oct. 18 Oct. 22

No Later Than Oct. 15 Oct. 21 Oct. 25 Oct. 25 Oct. 29 Oct. 22 Oct. 29 Oct. 29 Nov. 1

Sources http://www.eastsidemufflers.com/mufflers.htm

Picture Sources Slide 1 http://www.motorcycle-usa.com/photogallerys/03CBR600RReuro_DetG.jpgSlide2 Slide 2 http://www.emspowered.com/ http://www.motorcycle.com/manufacturer/honda/2003-cbr-600-track-test-1225.html Slide 5 http://www.impactlab.net/2010/07/01/new-drug-could-reverse-hearing-loss-caused-by-loud-noises/ Slide 35 http://www.dirtwerkz.com/images/products/dbdawg/db-Dawg_Black_450.jpg

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