Paper 2 Living with the Human Environment

Paper 2 Living with the Human Environment

Paper 2 Living with the Human Environment Section A Urban Issues and Challenges (urban change, urban growth and sustainable urban development) NEE City Case Study Rio de Janeiro Sustainable City - Freiburg HIC City - Portsmouth Urban Issues and Challenges? Apply BUM to the question Decide on the

PE/PEE/PEEL paragraphs, their type and number Decide on the points you want to make based on what you know Begin to write your answer Exam question: Evaluate the effectiveness of (an) urban transport scheme(s) you have studied (9 marks + 3 SPaG)

What is the command word to be boxed? Evaluate What are the important words and keywords to be underlined? effectiveness, urban transport scheme(s), studied Based on the marks, how many and what sort of paragraphs should you write? 3 x PEEL paragraphs Urban Issues and Challenges? Apply BUM to the question Decide on the PE/PEE/PEEL paragraphs, their type and

number Decide on the points you want to make based on what you know Begin to write your answer Exam question: Evaluate the effectiveness of (an) urban transport scheme(s) you have studied (9 marks + 3 SPaG) What key words could you include? sustainable, traffic congestion, traffic pollution What cheeky facts could you include?

400 km of cycle paths; 30 km of tram lines; bike and ride at railway stations; 20,000 parking space in one area What connectives should you include? On the one handon the other hand As a result Exam question: Evaluate the effectiveness of (an) urban transport scheme(s) you have studied (9 marks + 3 SPaG) P: Freiburg, SW Germany, has cut traffic congestion through an integrated transport plan in which all transport options are linked together making them very efficient. E: The most important form of transport in the city is the 30 km long tram network. E: This has led to a huge reduction in the use of cars and the growth of the use of trams, especially as fares are low and the tram connects with the bus routes. very effective at reducing traffic L: Therefore, the integrated transport scheme has been congestion, pollution and fossil fuel use. P: In addition, personal transport has been encouraged in the form of cycle lanes, bike

parks and bike and ride at railway stations. E: There are many kilometres of cycle lanes, 400 km to be exact. E: This is socially and environmentally sustainable because cycling improves peoples health as well as not polluting the environment. many people can get around without using a car. L: The cycle scheme is highly effective because there are stick ones P: However, in addition to these carrot (positive approaches) (negative approaches) too. E: These includehigh parking space fees, such as 20,000 in one area! E: These aim to discourage people from owning and using a car so that they use public transport, but only rich people can afford to have a car. L: Overall, the urban transport schemes used in Freiburg have been highly effective at reducing unsustainable transport use.

OR. Urban Issues and Challenges? Apply BUM to the question Decide on the PE/PEE/PEEL paragraphs, their type and number Decide on the points

you want to make based on what you know Begin to write your answer Exam question: Evaluate the effectiveness of (an) urban transport scheme(s) you have studied (9 marks + 3 SPaG) What is the command word to be boxed? Evaluate What are the important words and keywords to be underlined? effectiveness, urban transport scheme(s), studied Based on the marks, how many and what sort of paragraphs should you write? 3 x PEEL paragraphs

Urban Issues and Challenges Apply BUM to the question Decide on the PE/PEE/PEEL paragraphs, their type and number Decide on the points you want to make based on what you know

Begin to write your answer Exam question: Evaluate the effectiveness of (an) urban transport scheme(s) you have studied (9 marks + 3 SPaG) What key words could you include? sustainable, traffic congestion, traffic pollution What cheeky facts could you include? London Congestion Charge, 11.50, 10% fewer cars Ultra-Low Emission Zone, 16.50 What connectives should you include? On the one handon the other hand As a result Exam question: Evaluate the effectiveness of (an) urban transport scheme(s) you have studied (9 marks + 3 SPaG)

P: London is trying to reduce its traffic congestion through the Congestion Charge. E: This charges motorists 11.50 to drive into the centre of the city. E: This has led to a reduction of ten per cent in the number of vehicles entering the centre, although taxis, buses, emergency vehicles and low-emission cars are exempt. L: The scheme has been partly effective because there are fewer cars causing congestion, but not a huge number, although there would be many more otherwise. P: In addition, London has introduced this year the Ultra-Low Emission Zone in the city centre. E: This charges motorists a further 15.00 to drive into the centre of the city. E: This scheme will hopefully lead to fewer cars causing congestion and greater use of low-emission cars, walking, cycling and public transport. L: The scheme could be effective because

combined with the Congestion Charge, it could lead to a significant reduction in cars, congestion and pollution. P: Schemes that charge motorists to enter the city centre are the only one way to discourage car use and they punish people for driving. E: Other strategies London uses are improved cycle lanes, buses and Underground. E: These aim to encourage people to use public transport and healthier ways of getting around. effective, to are reduce traffic congestion a mixture of L: Overall, the Congestion Charge andbut ULEZ schemes to encourage people out of their cars is better.

Paper 2 Living with the Human Environment Section A The Changing Economic World (development, aid, closing the gap tourism (Jamaica) globalisation and quality of life) NEE Case Study Nigeria (work booklet) HIC City UK (work booklet) To what extent is the development gap a result of Physical factors [6 Marks] Physical Weather and Climate Drought Natural Hazards If the country is landlocked

A lack of natural resources to exploit Human Political Influences Government Stability; Corruption Trade lack of; world trade not being fair Historical reasons - colonialism Debt On one hand - Physical Factors How can weather and climate, in particular drought, affect the countrys ability to develop? Extreme drought lack of rainfall affect farmers being able to grow crops effectively this will result in a poor crop yield wont have enough crops to sell and earn an income wont be able to afford to send children to school they

wont be educated further hindering their opportunity to get a job in the future impacting on the countrys development . Or if the farmer is a commercial farmer and does not enough crops to sell - this will impact on the countrys overall GDP. But on the other hand Human factors How can trade, affect the countrys ability to develop? World trade dominated by HICs/NEEs/TNCs they want the lowest prices for goods so they can achieve huge profits LICs forced to sell raw materials at a low price less money for the country affects development of country as it is unable to grow plus gap gets bigger as HICs get richer due to profits made. Overall is it just physical factors? No many factors influencing the development gap, not just physical factors such as . but human factors too, such as ..also play a significant part. On one hand, physical factors such as weather and climate can influence a countrys ability to develop. Extreme weather such as drought can result in a country being unable to grow crops

efficiently. Poor crop yields mean that farmers are unable to earn enough money which means that they dont earn enough money to send their children to school. As a consequence their children will not be able to get well paid jobs in the future hindering the countrys development further. However on the other hand, human factors such as trade can also affect a countrys ability to develop. Trade across the world is dominated by HICs and TNCs. These countries and companies want to buy raw materials for as little as possible so they can make the biggest profits. As a result LICs are forced to sell their produce for very low prices which means that the people in the LICs earn less resulting in less money being earnt by the government by taxes. Not only does this affect the ability of the LICs to develop but it also increase the development gap further as the HICs are able to make greater profits and as a consequence develop further. Overall, the development gap is hindered by a combination of many factors. Some of those factors are physical factors such as weather and climate, natural hazards, a lack of raw materials or the country being landlocked. There are also a number of human factors too influencing development such as trade, the political status of the country, historical reasons

such as colonialism and how much debt the country has. Paper 2 Living with the Human Environment Section A The Challenge of Resource Management (global resource management, resources in the UK, *food) Example Sustainable Method to increase food supplies Rice Fish Farming, Jamalpur, Bangladesh (No 9 mark question in this section) Example????

Sustainable???? What does that mean? How is it increasing sustainable supplies of food? Example???? Rice Fish Farming, Jamalpur, Bangladesh Sustainable???? meeting the needs of current generations without compromising future generations How is it increasing sustainable supplies of food? 1. Explain how it works what is the strategy? 2. How is it sustainable? a. Rice yields increase farmers can sell the extra rice grown and increase income this is then reinvested back into their farms used to buy more land increase yields further - economically sustainable b. Local farmers educated on how to rice-fish farm they teach other farmers passed on through generations local farmers work together - socially sustainable.

c. Environmentally sustainable minimal impact on the environment no chemicals harming the environment damaging ecosystems I have studied rice-fish farming in Jamalpur, Bangladesh. It is an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable method of increasing food supplies and it meets the needs of current generations, without compromising the needs of future generations. The rice is grown in rice paddies and in the water surrounding the rice plants are fish. The two are mutually beneficial for each other as the fish eat the pests and insects on the plants, and provide nutrition for the plants to grow. The plants provide a good environment for the fish to swim in as they oxygenate the water. As a result of the fertilised water the Rice yields have increased. There is enough food to feed families both with the rice and the fish and farmers can sell the extra rice grown and increase their income. This money is then reinvested back into their farms and used to buy more land, increasing yields further. This is economically sustainable. Not only this, but local farmers are educated on how

to rice-fish farm. As a result, hey teach other farmers and this is passed on through generations. Local farmers work together making rice fish farming socially sustainable. Finally, it also environmentally sustainable. RFF has minimal impact on the environment as no chemicals are used harming the environment and therefore damaging ecosystems.

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