What is Chromatography? Chromatography is a technique for separating mixtures into their components in order to analyze, identify, purify, and/or quantify the mixture or components. Analyze Separate Identify Purify Mixture Components Quantify
Uses for Chromatography Chromatography is used by scientists to: Analyze examine a mixture, its components, and their relations to one another Identify determine the identity of a mixture or components based on known components Purify separate components in order to isolate one of interest for further study Quantify determine the amount of the a mixture and/or the components present in the sample Uses for Chromatography
Real-life examples of uses for chromatography: Pharmaceutical Company determine amount of each chemical found in new product Hospital detect blood or alcohol levels in a patients blood stream Law Enforcement to compare a sample found at a crime scene to samples from suspects Environmental Agency determine the level of pollutants in the water supply Manufacturing Plant to purify a chemical needed to make a product Definition of
Chromatography Detailed Definition: Chromatography is a laboratory technique that separates components within a mixture by using the differential affinities of the components for a mobile medium and for a stationary adsorbing medium through which they pass. Terminology: Differential showing a difference, distinctive Affinity natural attraction or force between things Mobile Medium gas or liquid that carries the components (mobile phase) Stationary Medium the part of the apparatus that does not move with the sample (stationary phase) Definition of
Chromatography Simplified Definition: Chromatography separates the components of a mixture by their distinctive attraction to the mobile phase and the stationary phase. Explanation: Compound is placed on stationary phase Mobile phase passes through the stationary phase Mobile phase solubilizes the components Mobile phase carries the individual components a certain distance through the stationary phase, depending on their attraction to both of the phases Types Types of
of Chromatography Chromatography Liquid Chromatography separates liquid samples with a liquid solvent (mobile phase) and a column composed of solid beads (stationary phase) Gas Chromatography separates vaporized samples with a carrier gas (mobile phase) and a column composed of a liquid or of solid beads (stationary phase) Paper Chromatography separates dried liquid samples with a liquid solvent (mobile phase) and a paper strip (stationary phase) Thin-Layer Chromatography separates dried liquid samples with a liquid solvent (mobile phase) and a glass plate covered with a thin layer of alumina or silica gel (stationary phase)
Principles of Paper Chromatography Capillary Action the movement of liquid within the spaces of a porous material due to the forces of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension. The liquid is able to move up the filter paper because its attraction is stronger than the force of gravity. Solubility the degree to which a material (solute) dissolves into a solvent. Solutes dissolve into solvents that have similar properties (like dissolves like). This allows different solutes to be separated by different combinations of solvents. Separation of components depends on both their solubility in the mobile phase and their differential affinity to the mobile phase and the stationary phase.
Illustration of Chromatography Stationary Phase Separation Mobile Phase Mixture Components Compone nts Affinity to Stationary Phase
Affinity to Mobile Phase Blue ---------------- Insoluble in Mobile Phase Black Red
Yellow Solvent Front distance pigment migrated Rf distance solvent front migrated 2.0 cm Red : Rf 0.4 5.0 cm
4.5 cm Blue : Rf 0.9 5.0 cm 3.5 cm Green : Rf 0.7 5.0 cm
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