Parasites - Ruminants

Parasites - Ruminants

Endoparasites Ruminants Goals and Objectives Understand the influence of parasitism on production Become familiar with the types of parasites afflicting agricultural animals

Understand the public health implications of selected parasites Understand the basic principles of parasite control and treatment Parasitology - Ruminants Economic Losses Poor ADG

Abortion Decreased conception rates Death Public Health Zoonoses Reasons For Economic Losses

-Producer Unaware of parasite damage estimate annual parasite-related losses to the livestock industry at more than $100 million - Timing & Frequency of treatments -Choice of dewormer -Parasites have greatest impact on

high producing animals. What is ruminants Parasitism? It is a herd disease It is a production disease It develops during grazing 99% of all pastures contaminated

Level of Parasitism Related To Age of animals Pasture contamination level Stocking rate of animals Grazing environment & Weather Immune status of animals Deworming strategy

-Producers understand importance of internal parasite control for production efficiency. -Deworming is now standard practice on beef and dairy farms. -Must have correct product at the correct time.

Definition Types of relationships between organism and host Commensal one benefits without harming the other Mutualism both participants benefit Parasitism one benefits at the expense of the other

Definition Endoparasite internal infection Ectoparasite external infestation Zoonotic infection transmission of an

infection from animals to humans Definition Life cycle from the start of one generation to the start of the next Direct completion of life cycle requires a single host

Indirect completion of life cycle requires greater than one host Direct Lifecycle Indirect Lifecycle Definition

Definitive Host where sexual reproduction of parasite occurs Intermediate Host required to complete a developmental phase in the parasites lifecycle, excluding sexual reproduction Prepatent Period time from infection of definitive host to the production of parasite offspring

Designing a Program in a Dairy/Meat Operation First determine the approximate level of parasitic contamination 1.- High Parasite Contamination Level Cows grazing pasture during lactation

When rotational grazing is practiced 2. Moderate Parasite Contamination Level Cows grazing pasture only during dry period Cows with access to an exercise lot only (with some grass)

Low Parasite Contamination Level Cows with access to dirt dry lot 4. Extremely Low Parasite Contamination Level Cows in total confinement Cows on a concrete dry lot

Summary Strategy For Lactating Cows Parasites have been shown to decrease milk production in early lactation Identify parasite contamination levels in each dairy operation Design deworming program based on

individuals or herd treatment relative to contamination levels Parasite Indications Purpose of the tests 1. Direct-aids in the detection of certain protozoan trophozoites. 2. Flotation method-eggs in feces are mixed with flotation

solution that will cause them to float to the top. 3. Baerman Funnel Technique-larva migrate to the bottom. Used to detect lungworms in ruminants. 4. Centrifugation technique-will detect parasitic eggs when other techniques do not, specially heavier eggs that will not float. 5. MIF (merthiolate iodine formalin) satins and preserves protozoans & larvae

Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method Technique Samples can be stored if refrigerated Sugar solution One pound of sugar.

Add to 12 oz(355cc) of hot water. Slides can be refrigerated for reading later Materials Sugar solution & dispensing syringe

Tea strainer 3/5 oz dixie cups Tongue depressors Taper bottom 15cc tubes Test tube rack Microscope slides & 22x22 mm cover slips

Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method Add 15 - 17 cc sugar solution to sample Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method

Place 3 - 5 grams of fecal material into a 3 oz paper cup (About a thimble full) Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method

Stir solution & fecal sample to an even consistency. Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method

Stir solution & fecal sample to an even consistency. Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method Use a tongue depressor,

press as much material through strainer as possible. Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method 1. Pour into 15cc taper bottom centrifuge tube.

2. Centrifuge in swinging arm centrifuge at 900 rpm for 5 7 minutes. Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method 1. Place tube in rack and top off with sugar solution to

form a meniscus. 2. Place 22x22 mm cover slip on tube and leave in place for 2 - 4 minutes. Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method

Lift cover slip upward & place on slide Modified Wisconsin Sugar Flotation Method Use microscope to

scan entire cover slip for egg count Definition Types of parasites Nematodes (phylum nemathelminthes) round worms Cestodes (phylum platyhelminthes) flat

worms Trematodes (phylum platyhelminthes) flukes Protozoa (phylum protozoa) singlecelled eukaryotes Nematodes Adult worms

male and female range in size from large to microscopic Eggs Larvae (stage 14) Adult Most have direct life cycles Most transmitted as infective larvae on pasture GI tract and lungs as adults

GI Nematodes ~ 11 Genera, Many Species Sites abomasum, small intestine, cecum, and large intestine Most ruminants = chronic infections Production losses and clinical disease are proportional to severity of infection

GI Nematodes Hot complex Haemonchus contortus 1 (25 mm) Abomasum of small ruminants feeds on blood Clinical signs anemia

death Clinical signs Haemonchus Calf is in poor condition with bottle jaw due to hypoproteinemia and anemia. It is massive direct

damage, usually late winter. Adults in the abomasum. Barberpole worm GI Nematodes Ostertagia ostertagi

1/2 (10 mm) adult worm; abomasum most serious impact on calves disrupt gastric acid secretion Clinical signs diarrhea illthrift poor feed conversion

Ostertagia ostertagi GI Nematodes Trichostrongylus axei Bankrupt worm Adults ~1/4 (48 mm); abomasum Clinical signs

Diarrhea dehydration bottle jaw

emaciation Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Hermaphroditic Intermediate host (indirect life cycle) Flattened appearance Tapeworms (Cestodes) Flukes (Trematodes)

Tapeworms (cestodes) Adult worms few inches to 15 yards long Segmented worms with attached head (scolex) Ruminants = intermediate host for canids and humans Ruminants eat eggs passed in feces of canids

or people Tapeworms (cestodes) Cysts in carcass, peasize to grapesize (beef measles) People/canids infected by eating encysted beef Carcass condemnation

ID, WA feedlots cattle infected with beef tapeworm of man (Taenia saginata); 10% losses in some feedlots Taenia saginata Liver Flukes (Trematodes)

Fasciola hepatica (most common); Fascioloides magna Live in bile ducts as adults Aquatic snails = intermediate host Clinical signs

photosensitization reduced ADG hepatitis; clostridial dz death Condemned liver at slaughter $millions in losses Protozoa

Singlecelled eukaryotes Amoeba; Ciliates (not discussed) Apicomplexa Eimeria, Cryptosporium, Toxoplasma, Neospora Flagellates Tritrichomonas, Giardia

Apicomplexa Intracellular protozoa Coccidia Sexual reproduction in intestine oocysts in feces definitive (direct) host or intermediate (indirect)

host Eimeria Direct lifecycle (all ruminants) Invade intestinal epithelium destruction of epithelial cells disruption of intestinal function Clinical signs

acute and chronic disease watery and/or bloody diarrhea decreased ADG clinical disease death young >> adult Cryptosporidium parvum Apicomplexa

Similar to Eimeria Clinical signs diarrhea 12 week old calves disease severity varies Zoonotic: particularly with immunocompromised

host Toxoplasma gondii Indirect lifecycle Cat = definitive host oocysts shed in cat feces Ruminants = intermediate host

tissue cysts Transmission to developing foetus abortion Zoonotic Neospora caninum Indirect lifecycle

Dog = intermediate host Clinical signs abortion neurologic disease in calves born alive Flagellates Mastigophora (flagellates that move with a

whip) Extracellular parasites One or more flagella assist with movement Divide by binary fission Example Tritrichomonas foetus Tritrichomonas foetus

Simple reproduction binary fission trophozoite is only stage Venereal disease of cattle (bull = carrier) Clinical signs early abortion pyometra

significant $losses due to decreased preg. rate References Large animal clinical procedures for veterinary technicians, Elizabeth A. Hanie, 2006 http://www.caes.uga.edu/publications/pubDetail.cfm?pk_ID=6 196

http://courses.cals.uidaho.edu/avs/avs471/Lectures/Lectures% 202010/Lecture%20Parasites%20notes.pdf http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/dxendopar/parasitepages/trem atodes/Fhepatica.htm http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/dxendopar/index.html#fecal http://www.sheepandgoat.com/HairSheepWorkshop/ parasitism.html

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