Part I Becoming African

Part I Becoming African

Chapter 4 Rising Expectations: African Americans and the Struggle for Independence The Battle of Cowpens African Americans fought on both sides in the American War for Independence.

In this nineteenth-century painting, a black Patriot aims his pistol at a British officer during the Battle of Cowpens, fought in South Carolina in 1781. SOURCE: William Ranney, The Battle of Cowpens. Oil on canvas. Photo by Sam Holland. Courtesy South Carolina State House. Photographer: Sam Holland I. Crisis of the British EmpireHistory French War and Indian War ~ Seven Years

British victory Removed French from the continent French and Spanish threat on frontier removed Indians unable to resist British Ties between British and colonies weakened

British debt increased Map 41. European Claims in North America, 1750 (left) and 1763 (right). The Declaration of Independence Because of Southern opposition, the Declaration of Independence was

edited to exclude criticism of the slave trade. Instead, the Declaration accused the British of inciting slaves to revolt against their masters. II. Declaration of Independence and African Americans

Thomas Jefferson Did not support black claims for freedom Denounced the Atlantic slave trade Deleted because Deep South delegates objected Revolutionary Rhetoric and Natural Rights Patriotic claims for equality and human rights African Americans read accounts Heard discussions Gave African Americans cause to hope

The Enlightenment: An Age of Reason John Locke Consent of the governed Protect natural rights of man to life, liberty, and property Peoples right to overthrow oppressive government Tabula Rasa Knowledge and wisdom acquired through experience

Revolutionary Pamphlets Slavery metaphor Slavery used to define colonists liberty Claimed Britain would deny colonists their rights as Englishmen Reduce them to slaves Establish tyranny

African Americans: The Revolutionary Debate Revolutionary Rhetoric Improved conditions for black people Escapes reduced black numbers South Carolina black population fell one-third New England Slaves sued for freedom Claims of universal liberty Petitioned colonial or state legislatures

For gradual emancipation African Americans: The Revolutionary Debate (cont.) Africans actively participated in events Blacks demonstrated against the Stamp Act Rioted against British troops (Crispus Attucks)

Stood with whites at Lexington and Concord Benjamin Bannekers Almanac The title page of the 1795 edition of Benjamin Bannekers Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanac. Banneker was widely known during the late eighteenth century as a mathematician and astronomer

Phillis Wheatley A frontispiece portrait of Phillis Wheatley precedes the title page of her first book of poetry, which was published in 1773. The portrait suggests Wheatleys small physique and studious manner. III. Black Enlightenment

Black intellectuals Jupiter Hammon (America's First Published AfricanAmerican Poet) Josiah Bishop (preacher) Phillis Wheatley (Americas first published African-American female poet) Benjamin Banneker Mathematician and astronomer Member of survey commission for Washington D.C IV. African Americans in the War for Independence

Loyalty to a principle Joined those who offered freedom Sided with Patriots in the North Loyalists in the South Black soldiers

Washington prohibited enlistments in 1775 Reenlistment of black men from earlier battles All thirteen colonies followed Washingtons lead IV. African Americans in the War for Independence

African Americans fought on both sides in the American War for Independence. In this nineteenth-century painting, a black Patriot aims his pistol at a British officer during the Battle of Cowpens, fought in South Carolina in 1781. SOURCE: William Ranney, The Battle of Cowpens. Oil on canvas. Photo by Sam Holland. Courtesy South Carolina State House. Photographer: Sam Holland African Americans in the War for Independence (cont.) Patriot leaders feared enlisting blacks

Encouraged leaving their masters without permission Paradox White people feared armed blacks Endangered the social order White people thought black men were too cowardly to be effective soldiers Ideas persisted into the 20th century

The Battle of Bunker Hill The black soldier in this detail from John Trumbulls contemporary oil painting The Battle of Bunker Hill is presumed to be Peter Salem. The battle took place in June 1775. The Peter Salem Gun is on display at the Bunker Hill Monument

Black Loyalists Fears of British instigated slave revolt Lord Dunmore Proclamation offering to liberate slaves, November 1775 Slaves escape to British 30,000 in Virginia

Laborers and foragers Black Loyalists greater in low country of South Carolina and Georgia Ten thousand blacks leave Savannah and Charleston at end of war Proclamation Calling on Black Men Black Patriots Dunmores use of black soldiers prompted

Washington to reconsider his ban. Success will depend on which side can arm the Negro faster.--George Washington Washington permitted reenlistments December 1775 Congress reluctant to allow further measures Feared alienating slaveholders Troops shortages forced Congress and state governments to use black soldiers South Carolina and Georgia refused black enlistments

Black Patriots (cont.) New England African Americans found faster acceptance Massachusetts accepted black men in 1777 Rhode Island formed a black regiment Connecticut allowed masters to free slaves and to serve as substitutes for masters or their sons New York and New Jersey adopted similar statutes

Southern states Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina reluctantly enlisted free blacks Only Maryland exchanged service for freedom Black Patriots (cont.) A Fight for Freedom African Americans wanted their liberty ensured

Integrated units Except Rhode Island and some Massachusetts companies 5,000 African American out of 300,000 soldiers served the Patriot cause Fought in nearly every battle Black women sometimes accompanied army camps African Americans and the War for Independence As a result of the American Revolution, Britain cedes

its territory east of the Mississippi V. The Revolution and Emancipation Liberty Bell rang loudest in the North- WHY???? Black soldiers service Christian duty Small economic stake

Northern Emancipation New England Slavery collapsed quickly Northern Emancipation Example: Massachusetts African men who paid taxes could vote, 1783 Elizabeth Freeman

Northern Emancipation (cont.) Mid-Atlantic states (NJ, NY, and PA) Investment in slaves greater than in New England PA and NY approved gradual emancipation

Chesapeake Manumissions but no serious threat to slave system Low country of South Carolina and Georgia Economic interest White solidarity against large black populations outweighed intellectual and religious considerations White commitment to black slavery remained

The Revolution and Emancipation (cont.) Abolition Society of Friends ~ Quakers Slavery sinful Condemned slavery and slave trade, 1758 Founded antislavery societies North and Chesapeake Petitioned northern legislatures to act against the system Never in the deep south

Revolutionary Impact Antislavery societies emphasized Black service against the British Religious and economic progress Emancipation to prevent black rebellions By 1784, all northern states except NJ and NY had legislated some form of emancipation.

Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia eased manumission Revolutionary Impact (cont.) Chesapeake and the North Slaves gained freedom for service Virginia legislature ordered masters to free slaves who had fought for American independence.

Chesapeake slaves also made gains Increased autonomy War hastened decline of tobacco Encouraged slaveholders to free excess labor/ negotiate labor contracts Permitted slaves to practice skilled trades Hiring out Revolutionary Impact (cont.) South

Autonomy Increased absenteeism Task system expanded Reduced contacts between blacks and whites South Carolina and Georgia imported Africans Strengthened West African cultural ties Revolutionary Promise Most

newly-freed slaves lived in the Chesapeake Substantial free black population developed Often moved to cities Greater opportunities Black women predominated in this migration Often without economic resources Took new names to signify their freedom VI. Conclusion

Regardless of the side they fought on, African Americans hoped to gain personal freedom in their decision to fight in Americas war for independence. From 1763 to 1783, African Americans sought ways to improve their lives. Black

writers, scientists, soldiers, artisans, and activists pushed for freedom in a myriad of ways. By the end of the war in 1783, slavery was dying in the North and seemed on the wane in the Chesapeake, but began to expand in the 1790s.

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