Particle Physics with Neutrons - Physikalisches Institut

Particle Physics with Neutrons - Physikalisches Institut

Teilchenphysik ohne Beschleuniger und Kosmologie 31.5.07 Sommersemester 2007 2. CP-Verletzung Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 2 H.W. Wilschut 3. Symmetries and the World according to Escher P start C matter

mirror image T identical to start anti-matter time time Time reversal violation can be measured at low energies anti-particle particle Hartmut of Heidelberg e+ Abele, eUniversity 3 BABAR 2001

Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 4 3. Prinzip: CP-Verletzung spin elementary particle EDM + P + + T + -

- - (P - known) (CP big deal) CP T Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg S. Paul, TUM 5 ILL: the EDM experiment Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 6 Final Sussex-RAL-ILL result use of 199Hg co-magnetometer

d(199Hg) < 8.7 10-28 ecm (C.A. Baker et al. PRL 97(2006) 131801) 50 pT Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg | dn | < 2.9 x 10-26 ecm (90% CL) 7 EDM: PSI F overall = 100 d ( N EP 2 ) 1 F N 40, FE 2, FP 2 1.3, F 1.1, Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 8 EDM

The PNPI experime nt Polarize neutrons || B0 while filling the bottle Apply B(wt) B0 to get neutron spin to B0 Wait for a time T (~100 s): spin precesses about B0 Apply B(wt) to get neutron spin || to B0; if w wL = (w -w - wL )T Analyze polarization: P = P0 cos() Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 9 Improvements Mainly performed by the group at PNPI (V. Lobashev et al.): official collaboration agreement with TUM (d n ) 2 E T N higher degree of polarization triple polarizers: a = 0.75 higher electric field E - new material (CERAN): E = 10 kV/cm

more neutrons N - FRM II + UCN source, more efficient neutron guides longer storage time T - better coating, better stability of B0: T 150 s Systematic errors: stable B0 (3fT!) - 3He magnetometer with SQIDs (W. Heil, Mainz), better shielding, polarization and analysis with the same arrangement Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 10 berblick zur die Sensitivitt von Neutronexperimenten EDM: Energy: E ~0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 1eV = 10-22 eV n-Ladung: Impuls: p/p ~ 10-11 (w -Winkelauflsung von 1 auf 10m) Feinstrukturkonstante / ~ 10-8 (w -Messung von: nvn) Quark-Mischung Vud ~ 7 x 10-4 Lebensdauer / ~ 10-3 Gravitation und QM g/g ~ 10-2 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 11

EDM Strong CP problem Axion als pseudoskalares Teilchen Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 12 et al. Axion limits 2007 Baeler Westphal, Baeler, H.A. PVLAS arXiv:hep-ph/0703108 UCN other limits Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 13

2. Prinzip: Mischung der Quarks 100% -Zerfall: ~ GF2 n-Zerfall:~ 0.95. GF2 = cos2C. GF2 50% K-Zerfall: :~ 0.05. GF2 = sin2C. GF2 0% 'down' 'strange' 'bottom' down d s b

V ud V cd V td V V V us cs ts V V V d s cb

b tb ub strange bottom 22 22 22 |V | + |V | + |V | |Vudud| +|Vusus| +|Vubub| = =1- 1-

Quarkmischung ist Rotation im Flavour-Raum (w -Null-Summe) CKM-Matrix ist unitr! Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 14 Unitarity Check: The Quark Mixing CKM Matrix Parametrization: 3 angles, and a phase A, , are real Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 15 Unitarity Check Vud Vud V II: U cd

UCKM V CKM cd V Vtdtd V V V V V V usus cscs tsts V V V V V

V ub ub cb cb tbtb PDG: PDG: = = 59 59 13, 13, = = 24 24 4 4 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 16 Unitarity Check II Vud= 1 - 2/2

dsf From A. Buras, Munich Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 17 Unitarity check Vud Vud Vcd UUCKM CKM Vcd V Vtdtd VV VV VV us us

cs cs tsts VV VV VV Vub Vus 0.00001% 5% ub ub cb cb tb tb Vud 95%

Mixing of quarks = rotation in flavor-space: Test in first row: |Vud|2 + |Vus|2 + |Vub|2 cos2 + sin2 + 0 < 1 ? : Cabibbo Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 18 Situation 1995 - 2004 Vud 0.9717(13) Neutron -Zerfall Vud 0.9738(4) 0+ 0+ Kern -Zerfall Vud 0.9728(30) Pion -Zerfall 0.0040 0.0012 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 19 e PDG he PDGfeels

feelsitithas hasthe theright rightto toredefine redefineanything anythingititwa wa 94: e centimeters on the ruler on p. 227 of the booklet 0.97 cm long, because: Is Isthere thereaageneral generaldecline declineof ofstandards? standards? The booklet were returned from the printer at 0.25 times he speed of light A theorist is in charge of the PDG The PDG feels it has the right to redefine anything it wants

There is a general decline of standards There was an international conspiracy t was a congressionally mandated cost-saving measure PDG gives you more cm/inch than anyone else Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 20 2 GF Vus 2 5 2 mk C f1 (0) I (1 )(1 R ) 3 192 Vus Kaon semileptonic decays - K+0l+l - K0L-l+l

sul+l = (w -2.120.08%), = -2.0% for K+ and 0.5% for K0 I+ = 0.1605 0.0009, I0 = 0.1561 0.0008 = (w -2.56 0.033)10-15 MeV, =(w -4.937 0.053)10-15 MeV f(w -0) = 0.961 0.008, f(w -0) = 0.963 0.004 VVusus= = 0.2196 0.2196 0.0017 0.0017exp exp 0.0018 0.0018thth =

= 0.2196 0.2196 0.0026 0.0026 (PDG (PDG Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 21 Some news in 2005: Vus b Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 22 CKM unitarity summary Phase of consolidation Achievements: - New K results - New A result - Halving of the theoretical error in radiative corrections

Continue to measure lifetime and correlation coefficients until limited by theory Lifetime Formfactors Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 23 Neutronlebensdauer Methode: UCN in Flaschen Przision / ~ 10-3 t N ( t ) N ( t0 ) exp ~ 99.99 % elastische Reflexion ~ 0.01% inelastische Reflexion in meV-Bereich

~ 0.001% Absorption 885.7 0.7 sec 878.5 0.8 sec 1 n 1 lo1ss TUM: magnetische Speicherung: keine Verluste Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg TUM 24 2 values 878.5 0.8 sec Serebrov et al. 885.7 0.7 sec PDG 2005 900 neutron lifetime values [s] 895 cold beam UCN

890 885 880 875 870 865 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 year = 2 x 10-6

Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 25 Neutrons and Big Bang Nucleo Synthesis Problem 1s after Big Bang: - What does a gas of n and p, when the universe expands and the temperature drops? Inputs: - neutron lifetime - Cross sections - neutrino cross-sections 1/ - nuclear physics 0.1 1 MeV

(measured!) Outputs: H, D, He, Li - number of particle families N - density of (ordinary) matter in universe Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 26 In more detail Weak reaction rate n + e+ p + e n + e p + e Hubble expansion rate Equating gives freeze out temp. 1 ~V ud2G F 2(1 3gA 2) Free neutron beta-decay

Neutron lifetime PDG 2006 Yp= 0.2479(w -6) Serebrov et al. 2005 Yp= 0.2463(w -6) astro-ph/0408523 v2 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 27

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