Partners for Success Intervention for Youth and Young Adults ...

Partners for Success Intervention for Youth and Young Adults ...

BRAVE NEW WORLD: AFTER 40 YEARS, WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT FASD Leigh E. Tenkku Lepper, PhD, MPH, University of Missouri Associate Research Professor, School of Social Work and Public Health Principal Investigator: Midwest Regional FASD Training Center (MRFASTC) Principal Investigator: Mental and Reproductive Health FASD Practice Implementation Center (MRPIC)

Quad Cities FASD Summit September 26, 2014 1 My journey 1976: Married high school sweetheart who had collected a drinking problem.

Researched what was known about alcoholism and found the genetic link. In the 70s: Keen interest in healthy pregnancies 2002: First heard about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 2

What is FAS/FASD? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) occurs as a result of a woman consuming alcohol during pregnancy which can result in significant effects on the developing brain of the infant. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term much like Autism

Spectrum Disorders in which there are a spectrum of conditions that may be diagnosed depending upon the differential effects of alcohol use during pregnancy. 3 Warren, Hewitt, Thomas, 2011

4 5 Longitudinal Growth - FAS How Prevalent?

Incidence of Birth Defects Down syndrome..1/800 births Cleft lip+/-palate.1/800 births Spina bifida..1/1000 births Trisomy 18.1/3000 births Fetal alcohol syndrome..1-2/1000 births

CDC approved estimates Many more with alcohol induced problems i.e. FASD Higher rates in some populations Recent 2009 estimates are much higher 1 in 100 births

How much do women drink? 8 Pregnant women who drink Illinois: In 2011, 160,116 live births

28,661 Binge drinking first trimester: 10,568 3,521 cases of children with FASD Any drinking first trimester: Iowa: In 2011, 38,033 live births

6,808 Binge drinking first trimester: 2,510 837 cases of children with FASD Missouri: In 2011, 77,206 live births Any drinking first trimester: 13,641 Binge drinking first trimester: 5,030 1,677 cases of children with FASD Any drinking first trimester:

13 14 How big is this problem? Long-Term Prognosis Secondary Disabilities associated

with FASDs Mental health problems94% Trouble with the law83% Sexual misconduct49% Disrupted school experiences61% Problems with alcohol and/or drug use Dependent living and employment for life

Long term prognosis with the right supports But many live very successful and fruitful lives. Emily Travis Miss

Southern Illinois 2012 Morgan Fawcett, Native American Flute Player and Spokesperson for Youth with 17 F Costs of FASD FAS costs US $5.4 billion in 2003 An FAS birth carries lifetime health

costs of $860,000 although can be as high as $4.2 million Plausible to assume that FAS reduces discounted lifetime productivity $200,000; lost wages & subsidies Even expensive FAS prevention may be cost effective 18

What do we know in 2014? 19 Terminology 1973 - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Partial FAS = pFAS

1978 - Fetal Alcohol Effects = FAE 1989 - Alcohol-related birth defects = ARBD 1996 - Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder = ARND 2004 - Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders = FASD 20

Diagnostic criteria IOM Guidelines - 1996 4-Digit Code Astley & Clarren 2000 National Task Force on FAS/FAE Bertrand 2004 IOM Guidelines Revised Hoyme 2005

Canadian diagnostic guidelines Chudley 2005 21 Comparison of diagnostic four systems Similarities: Growth retardation: 4/4 ht and wt < 10th

percentile Alcohol Exposure: 4/4 confirmed or unconfirmed alcohol exposure Differences: Facial: use same facial characteristics (short palpebral fissures, thin vermillion border, smooth philtrum

CNS involvement: different criteria for each 22 Case Ascertainment Significant improvements in how we find cases of FAS/FASD Three-dimensional computer recognition

How do we identify alcohol exposure when the facial dysmorphology is missing? Biomarkers to indicate exposure and eliminate reliance on self-report Measure blood, urine, hair 23

24 What is a Drink? Before screening, women should be taught what constitutes a typical drink A standard drink is defined as one 12-ounce bottle of beer

one 5-ounce glass of wine 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits The new wine glass 22 ounce wine glass 26 ounce wine glass

26 What are the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure? 27 Relationship between mothers drinking

and fetal development Brain Nerves Brai n Stomach Placent

a Breast Fetus Heart Organ s

Liver Muscles Kidneys 29 Reduced IQ for full FAS Cognitive and learning disabilities

Severe behavior problems 70% have a diagnosis of ADHD in children Oppositional Defiant/Conduct disorder next most common next to ADHD 30

Valenzuela. Puglia & Zucca, 2011 31 Use of imaging technologies (MRI) to show the neurological damage caused by PAE 32

33 34 Prevention Efforts 1981 and 2005: Surgeon General Warnings 2002-2014: Regional Training Centers (RTCs) Project Choices (2007)

ACOG Recommendations: Women and Alcohol Toolkit Screening Brief Intervention Referral and Treatment (SBIRT) American Academy of Pediatrics Toolkit and Algorithm 2014-2018: Practice Implementation Centers (PICs)

35 36 The first Think Before You Drink pregnancy test dispenser in a

women's restroom in a community college was placed in Central Lakes 37

Intervention Efforts Bertrand 2004: School-age Interventions Project Bruin Buddies social skills training Georgia Math Interactive Learning Experience math knowledge and skills training ALERT program behavior regulation and executive functioning Families Moving Forward: Parent therapy

program improve parent effectiveness and reduce behavior problems CDC 2009: Two national projects funded for youth and young adults with FASD OConnor: Project Step Up Tenkku: Partners for Success Intervention 38

Therapeutic interventions Complex motor skills training (Klintsova, 2000). This training can stimulate formation of new nerve cell connections in the cerebellum Brains ability to adapt; neuronal plasticity Choline supplementation (Thomas et

al 2007) 39 Complex motor task learning (Acrobat Condition) 40 Behavioral Interventions to Ameliorate

Alcohol Effects on Brain and Behavior Other Treatments Ways to minimize alcohol damage: With a word of caution. Unlikely that any treatment intervention will be able to address the multiple teratogenic effects of alcohol

Use of agents such as antioxidants, antiinflammatory agents, the nutrient choline to reduce fetal cell toxicity (Yeaney et al, 2009) Neuropeptides that provide protection from alcohol-induced fetal injury (Sari & Gozes, 2006) 42 After 40 years,what do we

know? Alcohol disrupts developmental processes through multiple sites of action (Warren, et al,

2011). Despite multiple media levels of health warnings, women continue to drink into their pregnancies. New technological advances in identification of FAS/FASD. May be new therapeutic options for those with FASD. Ultimate best message is still prevention of alcohol use during pregnancy.

43 Thank you! Questions?? 44

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