Parts of Speech Parts of Speech In the English language, words are used in EIGHT different ways: Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection
Nouns A noun is a word that names something: a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. governor Oregon hospital Buddhism love Proper Nouns Proper- names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. Proper nouns
are ALWAYS capitalized. Jackie Robinson World Series Christianity Christmas Common Nouns Common- names a general person place or thing; not capitalized. person woman president park
baseball government Practice: Underline the nouns in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. The wedding was beautiful. The bride and groom gazed into one anothers eyes. The flowers perfectly complimented the brides hair.
Too bad the groom threw up on the brides dress. PRONOUNS Pronouns A pronoun takes the place of a noun, like they for children, and she for Shelly. School House Rocks Antecedents All pronouns have antecedents. An antecedent is the noun that the pronoun refers to or replaces. Tim threw his glove over the fence. Then he
jumped over and kicked it to his car. Tim is the antecedent for his and he, while glove is the antecedent for it. Practice Circle the antecedent in the following sentences. 1. The student forgot his homework in his car. 2. The homework was important. It was worth the final project for the class. 3. The student was glad he had not squandered his bathroom/hall passes. Person The person of a pronoun indicates whether the person, place, thing, or idea represented by the pronoun is speaking, is spoken to, or is spoken
about. First person is used in place of the name of the speaker or speakers. I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours Second Person pronouns name the person or persons spoken to. You, your, yours Third person pronouns name the person or thing spoken about. He, she, it, one, they, him, his, her, them, their, theirs, hers practice
Is the pronoun in the following sentence in first, second, or third person? 1. I love to read books. 2. They plunged down the steep embankment. 3. You are a funny person.
4. He doesnt seem guilty. 5. We removed our shoes on the beach. Verb Its what you do . .. Verbs are the part of speech that express action or being.
According to A Writers Reference: Sixth Edition ACTION! There are two types of verbs. Action Verbs (swimming) Linking Verbs (was) Action verbs express action. Linking verbs express being. Linking v. Action Linking Verbs Action Verbs
Have, has, had Run, swim, hit, throw Do, does, did Dance, see, hear, fall, marry Be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been Make, draw, sculpt, compose Sam is getting married. Sam married my sister.
What is being expressed: action/being? 1. The cat catches mice. ____________________ 2. Repetition does not always produce perfection. ________________ 3. Rome was not built in a day. ____________________ 4. The best fish swim near the bottom. ____________________ 5. Miss America is beautiful. ____________________ Adjectives & Adverbs d What kin Unde r wh at co nditio n
any m w Ho When y Wh Which How To w h
at ex t ent re Whe one Adjectives What kind Which one How many
Adverbs How When Where Why Under what conditions To what degree questions Adjectives Modify
or Describe nouns Answers which one, what kind, how many The lame elephant (which elephant?) Valuable old stamps (what kind of stamps?) Sixteen candles (how many candles?) Adverbs Adverbs
modify: verbs (swim quickly) adjectives (always sad) other adverbs (too quickly) Adverbs often end in ly. The negators not and never are classified as adverbs. What question does the adverb answer? Pull gently at a weak rope.
_____________________ Read the best books first. _____________________ The students are talking too loudly. _____________________ Tell whether the following are adjectives or adverbs: The boat drifted peacefully down the river. ________________ Afterward, we watched a movie. ________________
The children enjoyed singing the silly songs. ________________ Jennifer smiled shyly at the students in her new class. ________________ The old man snored quietly in the waiting room. ________________ ________________ ________________ Two hundred voters came to the polls. ________________
Adjectives and adverbs both describe! Adjectives describe nouns. Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. E S U O H L
O O S H K C C S O R Prepositions Theyre everywhere Prepositions Prepositions are used in sentences to show
relationships between other words. They give extra information or details. I love going to the movies. Prepositions The most common prepositions are: Above Before During Over Until Across
Behind For Through Upon After Below From To
With Against Beyond In Toward Within Among Beneath Into
Under Without Around By Of Till Prepositions Prepositions do not stand alone in a sentence. They join with other words to make a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE.
A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition, an object (noun/pronoun), plus any words that modify the object. IN THE MALL ON THE WALL Prepositions FUNCTION: Prepositional phrases act like adjectives or adverbsthey DESCRIBE. Along the beach Under the table After the preposition, ask, What? to find the object. In the morning To the doctor I will get a drink of water.
Examples Underline the preposition in each phrase, circle the object, highlight the modifiers: Along the beach Under the table
Beneath the beautiful yet aged face In her own time After the close game NOTE: A preposition is always followed by an object; if there is no object, the word is an adverb, not a preposition. Example: Turn at the light before Walmart. Natasha never played soccer before.
Place [brackets] around each prepositional phrase. Underline the preposition and circle the object. 1. Captain America loves punching Nazis in the face. 2. Beneath the water, the terrible creature feasted on his favorite mealchildrens cough syrup. 3. He was late because of numerous things, but
mostly the ninja attack. INTERJECTION Interjection A word that shows strong emotion or surprise. Oh no! Yipes! Good grief!
Well, . . . Interjections are usually followed by an exclamation point, but not always. Practice Fill in the blanks with an appropriate interjection. 1. ______________! I forgot my homework! 2. Will you marry me? __________!
3. _______________! I cant believe I won the lottery! Conjunctions Conjunction, junction, whats your function? Conjunctions Conjunctions are CONNECTING words. They join together different clauses, phrases, and ideas in a sentence. There are four main types of conjunctions:
Coordinating Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions Conjunctive Adverb Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions are connectives that join elements of equal rank (and, but, or, for, nor, so, yet, while).
Coordinating conjunctions can join anything of equal rank. Clauses Phrases Ideas Clause: I love watching football, but I would prefer to play. Ideas: I love football and basketball. For
And Nor But Or Yet So Coordinating Conjunctions Equal rank= they can join independent clauses, ONLY when preceded with a comma. Practice: I wanted to play outside but it was raining. Apples and oranges are my favorite fruits.
Subordinate Conjunctions AKA subordinators Subordinating Conjunctions connect clauses that are not equal in rank that is, in sentences which one idea is made subordinate to another. These subordinate clauses are also called dependent clauses because they cannot stand alone. Common subordinators are as follows: After Before
In order Until Although Even if Once When As Ever since Since
Whenever Because If Unless Wherever While That Subordinators (cont.) Use
a comma when a subordinator is used for an introductory clause. You do not need to use a comma if the clause comes at the end of the sentence. Examples: When we get home, I will take out the trash. Mom said I had to because it was causing the house to smell. Correlative Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions are also used to connect equal parts of sentences. These paired conjunctions (both/and,
either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also) actually work as one. Example: Not only are we going to St. Louis to watch the game, but we are also going to visit the zoo. Conjunctive Adverbs Conjunctive Adverbs are other connective or transitional words. The most common are: Accordingly Certainly
Furthermore Otherwise Also Consequently However Similarly Besides Finally
Nevertheless Undoubtedly Conjunctive adverbs must be preceded by a semi-colon (;) and followed by a comma. Jack loved Jill; nevertheless, he didnt need help carrying the water up the hill. PRACTICE In the following sentences, insert the correct punctuation and tell what kind of conjunction the underlined word is. 1. The girl and the boy were on time. 2. Because he did not study, he did poorly on the test. 3. You can leave now or you can leave later. 4. Either my ACT or SAT scores should earn me a scholarship.
5. Jack however doesnt feel well enough to go tonight. 6. John not only wanted to take pre-med courses but he also wanted to play on the varsity football team. 7. I understand your anger however I hope you can forgive me. 8. He may not get better however if he does he may go anyway. 9. John hated physics class but he needed the credit to graduate. 10. Until she saw the letter she did not believe she had been admitted to college.
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