Perception Chapter 6 - Bronx High School of Science

Perception Chapter 6 - Bronx High School of Science

Perception Chapter 6 1 Perception The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information, which enables us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

2 Selective Attention Perceptions about objects change from moment to moment. We can perceive different forms of the Necker cube; however, we can only pay attention to one aspect of the object at a time.

Necker Cube 3 Inattentional Blindness Daniel Simons, University of Illinois Inattentional blindness refers to the inability to see an object or a person

in our midst. Simmons & Chabris (1999) showed that half of the observers failed to see the gorillasuited assistant in a ball passing game. 4 Change Blindness Change blindness is a form of inattentional blindness in which two-thirds of individuals

giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions. 1998 Psychonomic Society Inc. Image provided courtesy of Daniel J. Simmons. 5 Perceptual Illusions Illusions provide good examples in understanding how perception is organized. Studying faulty perception is

as important as studying other perceptual phenomena. Line AB is longer than line BC. 6 Tall Arch Rick Friedman/ Black Star

In this picture, the vertical dimension of the arch looks longer than the horizontal dimension. However, both are equal. 7

Illusion of a Worm 1981, by permission of Christoph Redies and Lothar Spillmann and Pion Limited, London The figure on the right gives the illusion of a blue hazy worm when it is nothing else but blue lines identical to the figure on the left. 8

3-D Illusion Reprinted with kind permission of Elsevier Science-NL. Adapted from Hoffman, D. & Richards, W. Parts of recognition. Cognition, 63, 29-78 It takes a great deal of effort to perceive this figure in two dimensions. 9

Perceptual Organization When vision competes with our other senses, vision usually wins a phenomena called visual capture. How do we form meaningful perceptions from sensory information? We organize it. Gestalt psychologists showed that a figure formed a whole different than its surroundings. 10

Form Perception Organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground). Time Savings Suggestion, 2003 Roger Sheperd. 11 Grouping After distinguishing the figure from the

ground, our perception needs to organize the figure into a meaningful form using grouping rules. 12 Grouping & Reality Although grouping principles usually help us construct reality, they may occasionally lead us astray.

Both photos by Walter Wick. Reprinted from GAMES Magazine. . 1983 PCS Games Limited Partnership 13

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