Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments
Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments c. 1900 to the Present *The Notes are Straight from the AP Board (not the articles:} ) Key Concept 6.1 Science and the Environment Rapid advances in science altered the understanding of the universe and the natural world and led to the development of new technologies. These changes enabled unprecedented population growth, which altered how humans interacted with the environment and threatened delicate ecological balances at local, regional, and global levels. I. Researchers made rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world, assisted by the development of new technology. A. New modes of communication and transportation virtually eliminated the problem of
geographic distance. Examples of migrant ethnic enclaves in different parts of the world: Chinese in Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, South America, North America Indians in East and southern Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia Example of the regulation of Immigrants: The White Australia Policy B. New scientific paradigms transformed human understanding of the world. Einsteins Theory of Relativity C. The Green Revolution produced food for the earths growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture. D. Medical innovations increased the ability of humans to survive. E. Energy technologies including the use of oil and nuclear power raised productivity and increased the production of material goods.
Einsteins Theory of Relativity In the early 1900s, scientists held firm to the Newtonian view of the world. Then a German-born physicist by the name of Albert Einstein came along and changed everything. In 1905, Einstein published his theory of special relativity, which put forth a startling idea: Everything, even time, is relative. Two important principles underpinned his theory. The first stated that the same laws of physics apply equally in all constantly moving frames of reference. The second said that the speed of light -- 186,000 miles per second - is constant and independent of the observer's motion or the source of light. According to Einstein, if Superman were to chase a light beam at half the speed of light, the beam would continue to move away from him at exactly the same speed. These concepts seem deceptively simple, but they have some mindbending implications. One of the biggest is represented by
Einstein's famous equation, E = mc, where E is energy, m is mass and c is the speed of light; mass and energy are the same physical entity and can be changed into each other the energy an object has due to its motion will increase its mass. In other words, the faster an object moves, the greater its mass. Einsteins Theory of Relativity Continued This only becomes noticeable when an object moves really quickly. If it moves at 10 percent the speed of light, for example, its mass will only be 0.5 percent more than normal. But if it moves at 90 percent the speed of light, its mass will double. As an object approaches the speed of light, its mass rises precipitously. If an object tries to travel 186,000 miles per second, its mass becomes infinite, and so does the energy required to move it. For this reason, no normal object can travel as fast
or faster than the speed of light "What if you traveled almost as fast as the speed of light?" In that case, you would experience some interesting effects. One famous result is something physicists call time dilation, which describes how time runs more slowly for objects moving very rapidly. If you flew on a rocket traveling 90 percent of light-speed, the passage of time for you would be halved. Your watch would advance only 10 minutes, while more than 20 minutes would pass for an Earthbound observer... http://science.howstuffworks.com Einstein's theory of general relativity predicted that the space-time around Earth would be not only warped but also twisted by the planet's rotation. Gravity Probe B showed this to be correct. Credit: NASA
The Polio Vaccination 1953 American Dr. Jonas Salk created a polio vaccine. Polio is a disease that attacks the nervous system and can cause varying degrees of paralysis. Dr. Jonas Salk Bobby Hill, three months old, is the youngest polio victim ever treated in an Iron Lung (to help him breathe) at Cincinnati General Hospital. (1954) Key Concept 6.1 Continued II. As the global population expanded at an unprecedented rate, humans
fundamentally changed their relationship with the environment. A. Humans exploited and competed over the earths finite resources more intensely than ever before in human history. B. Global warming was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere. C. Pollution threatened the worlds supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continuing consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of other species accelerated sharply. III. Disease, scientific innovations, and conflict led to demographic shifts. A. Diseases associated with poverty persisted, while other diseases emerged as new epidemics and threats to human survival. In addition, changing lifestyles and increased longevity led to higher incidence of certain diseases. B. More effective forms of birth control gave women greater control over fertility and transformed sexual practices.
C. Improved military technology and new tactics led to increased levels of wartime casualties. [i.e. trench warfare, the nuclear bomb] Examples of Wartime Casualties: Nanjing, the Holocaust, Hiroshima & Nagasaki Disease Associated with Poverty: Malaria Malaria infects approximately 219 million people each year, with an estimated 660,00 deaths. 90% of malaria deaths occur in Africa, where malaria accounts for about one in six of all childhood deaths. The disease also contributes greatly to anemia among children a major cause of poor growth and development. Malaria is both preventable and treatable! *insecticide treated nets* *Prompt access to effective treatment* http://www.unicef.org/health/index_malaria.html 2 infected children, Congo, 2010
UNICEF sponsored mosquito nets Emergent Epidemic Disease: HIV Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans... The earliest known case of infection with HIV-1 in a human was in 1959 from a man in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (How he became infected is not known)... We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s... In 1982 public health officials began to use the term "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome," or AIDS. Formal tracking of AIDS cases began that year in the US. In 1983, scientists discovered the virus that causes AIDS; HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)... http://www.theaidsinstitute.org/node/259
HIV medicines have become much easier to take in recent years. Some newer drug combinations package 3 separate medicines into only 1 pill, taken once a day, with minimal side effects. For the great majority of people, HIV medicines are effective, and let people infected with HIV live longer and healthier lives [but] Some of the drugs are difficult to take, can cause serious side effects, and don't work for everyone. Even when a drug does help a particular person, it may become less effective over time or stop working altogether. http://www.hiv.va.gov/ Disease Associated with Changing Lifestyle: Diabetes Type II Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adolescents; about 151,000 people below the age of 20 years have diabetes. When diabetes strikes during childhood, it is routinely assumed to be type 1, or juvenile-onset diabetes. However, in the last 2
decades, type 2 diabetes (formerly known as adult-onset diabetes) has been reported among U.S. children and adolescents with increasing frequency. Type 2 diabetes begins when the body develops a resistance to insulin and no longer uses the insulin properly. As the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin to regulate blood sugar. Health care providers are finding more and more children with type 2 diabetes, a disease usually diagnosed in adults aged 40 years or older, possibly due to obesity and the low level of physical activity http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/projects/cda2.htm Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and Their Consequences
At the beginning of the twentieth century, a European-dominated global political order existed, which also included the United States, Russia, and Japan. Over the course of the century, peoples and states around the world challenged this order in ways that sought to redistribute power within the existing order and to restructure empires, while those peoples and states in power attempted to maintain the status quo. Other peoples and states sought to overturn the political order itself. These challenges to, and the attempts to maintain, the political order manifested themselves in an unprecedented level of conflict with high human casualties. In the context of these conflicts, many regimes in both older and newer states struggled with maintaining political stability and were challenged by internal and external factors, including ethnic and religious conflicts, secessionist movements, territorial partitions, economic dependency, and the legacies of colonialism. I. Europe dominated the global political order at the beginning of the twentieth century, but both land-based and transoceanic empires gave way to new forms of
transregional political organization by the centurys end. A. The older land-based Ottoman, Russian, and Qing empires collapsed due to a combination of internal and external factors. [i.e. the Qing empire collapsed due to the British imposed opium trade (external) and distrust of the Manchu rulers (internal)] Key Concept 6.2 Continued B. Some colonies negotiated their independence. [i.e. India from the British Empire] C. Some colonies achieved independence through armed struggle. [Vietnam from the French Empire] II. Emerging ideologies of anti-imperialism contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states. A. Nationalist leaders in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule. [i.e. Mohandas Gandhi] B. Regional, religious, and ethnic movements challenged both colonial rule and
inherited imperial boundaries. C. Transnational movements sought to unite people across national boundaries. [i.e. Pan-Africanism] D. Movements to redistribute land and resources developed within states in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, sometimes advocating communism and socialism. III. Political changes were accompanied by major demographic and social consequences. A. The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements. [i.e. the India/Pakistan partition, the Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine, and the division of the Middle East into mandatory states] Regional movements: The Qubcois Beginning in the 1960s Quebec was the center a separatist movement; the Quebecois wanted to separate from Canada and establish a French-speaking nation. In 1970
terrorists kidnapped and murdered Quebec's minister of labor and immigration, Pierre Laporte. The federal government sent in troops and temporarily suspended civil liberties. In 1974 French became the official language of Quebec. Although the separatist party retained power, a referendum to make the province an independent country was rejected by the Quebec voters in 1980, and again in 1995. http://www.linksnorth.com/canada-history/quebecsep.html Quebec City Ooo La La! Key Concept 6.2 Continued B. The migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires. [i.e. Algerians to France] C. The proliferation of conflicts led to various forms of ethnic violence and the displacement of
peoples resulting in refugee populations. [i.e. the Holocaust, Armenian Genocide, Rwanda Genocide, Khmer Rouge] IV. Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale. A. World War I and World War II were the first total wars. Governments used ideologies, including fascism, nationalism and communism, to mobilize all of their states resources, including peoples, both in the home countries and the colonies or former colonies, for the purpose of waging war. Governments also used a variety of strategies, including political speeches, art, media, and intensified forms of nationalism, to mobilize these populations. B. The sources of global conflict in the first half of the century varied. Examples of the sources of global conflict: Imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan Competition for resources Ethnic conflict Great power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany
Nationalist ideologies The economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression. Algerians in France Today ... France is now Algeria's main trade partner What Hollande's trip to Algeria fails to acknowledge, however, is just how oppressed so many French-Algerians still feel today. This is not because of what happened to their parents or grandparents but because of the uniquely divisive way in which modern France continues to treat people still viewed as immigrants, rather than bona fide citizens This is why French-Algerian communities still live on
impoverished housing estates, go to bad schools, and have few opportunities for social advancement. At best they get menial jobs, at worst they end up unemployed or in prison. by Nabila Ramandi The Guardian Dec 2012 Syrian Refugees Gulf countries including Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Bahrain have offered zero resettlement places to Syrian refugees. Other high income countries including Russia, Japan, Singapore and South Korea have also offered zero resettlement places. Germany has pledged 39,987 places for Syrian refugees through its
humanitarian admission programme and individual sponsorship; about 54% of the EU total. Germany and Serbia together have received 57% Syrian asylum applications in Europe between April 2011 and July 2015 Excluding Germany and Sweden, the remaining 26 EU countries have pledged around 30,903 resettlement places, or around 0.7% of the Syrian refugee population in the main host countries www.Amnestyinternational.com Syrian Refugees arriving in Lesbos, Greece Key Concept 6.2 Continued C. The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of World War II
and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers, which led to ideological struggles between capitalism and communism throughout the globe. D. The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. E. The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War. V. Although conflict dominated much of the twentieth century, many individuals and groups including states opposed this trend. Some individuals and groups, however, intensified the conflicts. A. Groups and individuals challenged the many wars of the century [i.e. Vietnam protesters], and some promoted the practice of nonviolence [i.e. Gandhi] as a way to bring about political change. B. Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives to the existing economic, political, and social orders. [i.e. Communist leaders such as Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong]
C. Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict. D. More movements used violence against civilians to achieve political aims. E. Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture. Vietnam Protesters The Military Industrial Complex A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry But now we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations... We recognize the imperative need for this development
In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together - Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961 Movement That Used Violence: Al-Qaeda During in the 1970s, when the Russia was the biggest threat to America and radical Islam was not as a concern of the USAs, the USA began
funding and training Islamic militants to fight our Russian enemies in Afghanistan. These militants, known as the mujahideen would rebel the Russians out of Afghanistan and later become the Taliban, Al Qaeda and the Muslim Brotherhood. One of the most prominent members of he mujahideen was a wealthy son of a Saudi Arabian businessman named Osama Bin Laden After Ronald Reagan was elected in 1981, U.S. funding of the mujahideen increased significantly and CIA Paramilitary Officers played a big role in training, arming and sometimes even leading mujahideen forces. http://newsone.com/1205745/cia-osama-bin-laden-al-qaeda/ The US government has blamed Al-Qaeda for bomb attacks on two US embassies in Africa in 1998 and the destruction of the World Trade Center in New York in 2001, among other recent terrorist attacks.
Rocky and Bullwinkle: Pop Culture and the Cold War Boris and Natasha American Cold War Propaganda? Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture The twentieth century witnessed a great deal of warfare and the collapse of the global economy in the 1930s. In response to these challenges, the role of state in the domestic economy fluctuated, and new institutions of global governance emerged and continued to develop throughout the century. Scientific breakthroughs, new technologies, increasing levels of integration, changing relationships between humans and the environment, and the
frequency of political conflict all contributed to global developments in which people crafted new understandings of society, culture, and historical interpretations. These new understandings often manifested themselves in, and were reinforced by, new forms of cultural production. Institutions of global governance both shaped and adapted to these social conditions. I. States responded in a variety of ways to the economic challenges of the twentieth century. A. In the Communist states of the Soviet Union and China, governments controlled their national economies. [i.e. Stalins 5 Year Plan] B. At the beginning of the century in the United States and parts of Europe, governments played a minimal role in their national economies. With the onset of the Great Depression, governments began to take a more active role in economic life. [i.e. FDRs New Deal] Key Concept 6.3 Continued
C. In newly independent states after World War II, governments often took on a strong role in guiding economic life to promote development. [i.e. the privatization of the Suez Canal by President Nasser of Egypt] D. At the end of the twentieth century, many governments encouraged free market economic policies and promoted economic liberalization. [i.e. Chile under Pinochet] II. States, communities, and individuals became increasingly interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of institutions of global governance. A. New international organizations formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation. [i.e. the League of Nations and the UN] B. New economic institutions sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics throughout the world. [i.e. the IMF and the World Bank] C. Humanitarian organizations developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world. [i.e. the Red Cross] D. Regional trade agreements created regional trading blocs designed to promote the
movement of capital and goods across national borders. [i.e. the EU and NAFTA] E. Multinational corporations began to challenge state authority and autonomy. [i.e. McDonalds] F. Movements throughout the world protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration. [i.e. Greenpeace] The Red Cross The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) was founded in 1919 in Paris in the aftermath of WWI... The first objective of the IFRC was to improve the health of people in countries that had suffered greatly during the four years of war There were five founding member Societies: Britain, France, Italy, Japan and the United States. This number has grown to 189. https://www.ifrc.org/en/who-weare/history/
McDonalds: Banned? What surprises many people is the McDonalds absence from multiple countries McDonalds has never set foot into Cambodia, or Ghana... Since both countries are flourishing by basing their economies on concrete industries, McDonalds would not necessarily contribute to either countrys development The Bolivian government closed down McDonalds after 14 years of operation. President Evo Morales condemned McDonalds and all fast food restaurants in the Western Hemisphere for risking the health of millions for a profit... Instead of public dissent, Iceland closed down McDonalds because of an economic crisis. In 2009, the Icelandic krona decreased in value which forced the McDonalds headquarters to shut down the restaurants By Rashaad Mubarak October 1, 2013 Greenpeace The Greenpeace movement grew out of the "peace" and environmental
movements in the early '70's... Greenpeace is a global campaigning organization that acts to change attitudes and behavior, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace by: Ending climate change, defend nature, destroy all nuclear weapons, and to have toxic free lifestyles. http://www.greenpeacefoundation.org/about/gpmovement.cfm Golden rice is a genetically engineered (GE) rice variety that has been developed by industry to produce pro-vitamin A (beta-carotene). Its proponents have hyped GE Golden rice as a high-tech, quick-fix solution to vitamin A deficiency , which is prevalent in developing countries and can lead to blindness. But Greenpeace says that the rice is environmentally irresponsible, and poses risks to human health. Ironically the person behind the Allow Golden Rice Campaign is Dr. Patrick Moore, who co-founded Greenpeace and the quit the organization in 1986 saying the eco-group no longer cares about people and that it had become more interested in politics than science
http://www.asianpacificpost.com/article/6770-greenpeace-co-foundersupports-gmo-golden-rice.html Key Concept 6.3 Continued III. People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; some challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender, and religion, often using new technologies to spread reconfigured traditions. A. The notion of human rights gained traction throughout the world. [i.e. the UN Declaration of Human Rights] B. Increased interactions among diverse peoples sometimes led to the formation of new cultural identities[i.e. Negritude] and exclusionary reactions [i.e. apartheid]. C. Believers developed new forms of spirituality and chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to political issues. [i.e. Falun Gong] IV. Popular and consumer culture became global.
A. Sports were more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations. [i.e. the Olympics] B. Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film. [i.e. Bollywood] Falun Gong/Dafa Falun Dafa (also called Falun Gong) is an advanced practice of Buddha school selfcultivation, founded by Mr. Li Hongzhi. Falun Dafa brings a person to a state of wisdom and harmonious existence. The movements of the practice are concise, as a great way is extremely simple and easy. http://en.falundafa.org/introduction.html The Falun Gong cult was founded in 1992 and was banned in accordance with the law in July, 1999 [in China]. However, Li Hongzhi abused freedom by organizing the cult and did a lot of bad things. During these years, Li never ran any companies or enterprises, or did any businesses. But he amassed millions of dollars Once you voice any disagreement with Falun Gong, Li Hongzhi will ask his disciples to besiege and
harass you... From June 1998 to June 1999, the " Falun Gong" organized seventy-eight illegal gatherings... They allowed the Falun Gong to have the freedom to do whatever they wanted to do. But they didn't allow the others to have the freedom to disagree with Falun Gong. It is clear who on earth has infringed the freedom of the others Zhang Hongxi, Consulate-General of the People's Republic of China, at the Symposium on Exposing the Evil Nature of the Falun Gong Cult, organized by the New York Chinese communities. Li Hongzhi, Founder of Falun Gong. Now lives in NYC FaLun Dafa Torture Demonstration NYC
The Olympics On April 6, 1896, the first modern Olympic Games are held in Athens, Greece, with athletes from 14 countries participating. The International Olympic Committee met for the first time in Paris in June 1984 and chose Greece as the site of the inaugural modern Olympiad. The ancient games are believed to have originated in 776 B.C. in Olympia, Greece, where athletes competed in one event: a foot race. Over the years, other events were added, including chariot racing, boxing, wrestling and the pentathlon. Participants, who were all young men from Greek city-states and colonies, often battled it out in the buff, as a way to celebrate the human body, and winners received olive branches. The last ancient Olympics are thought to have taken place in A.D. 393 www.history.com Olympics, 1896
Olympics, 2014 Bollywood Bollywood is the name given to Indias film making industry. What most people dont realize, however, is that Bollywood has a long and rich history that goes almost as far back as that of Hollywood. The first films every produced in Indias Bollywood were soundless short films going back to 1986! The first talkie was released for viewing in India in 1931. Indian filmmakers widely expanded movie genres from the 1960s through the 1990s to include action films, thrillers, musicals, and love stories. http://www.world-film-awards.com/history-ofbollywood.html HW Questions 1. Describe at least 2 scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century. Why
were they breakthroughs? 2. How have diseases spread due to changing lifestyles? 3. What is being done to solve the Syrian refugee crisis? Is it enough? 4. What is the purpose of the Red Cross and Greenpeace? What are some criticisms of Greenpeace? 5. What is Falun Gong/Dafa? Why does the Chinese government consider it to be a cult? Key Vocabulary Algerians Al-Qaeda Bollywood Diabetes Type II Einstein
Falun Gong/Dafa Greenpeace Malaria Military Industrial Complex Palestinian Refugees Polio Qubcois Separists Red Cross Dr. Jonas Salk Theory of Relativity
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