Periodic Table Notes

Periodic Table Notes

PERIODIC TABLE NOTES Properties of Matter Physical properties Observed without

changing the substance into something else. Density Melting point Boiling point Mass Volume

Color Dissolving (To study matter click here) Chemical Properties

Observed when a substance interacts with another substance Flammability (Burning) Reactivity (with other

elements) Explosive *Click on the underlined links above to view more chemical and physical

properties* The modern periodic table uses chemical and physical properties to group the elements. Scientists use it as a tool to learn the properties of familiar elements and to learn to

predict the properties of other elements. Each square on the modern periodic table contains information about one element. Usually this

includes the elements atomic mass, atomic number, name and symbol. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number going from left to right and from top to bottom.

Groups/ Families Are vertical

columns on the table All elements in a group/ familiy have similar properties Just like all people in a family have

similar features Groups/ Families Groups are numbered from left to right and usually take the name of the first element at the top of each column.

For example, group 14 is the carbon family and group 15 is the nitrogen family. Periods There are 7 horizontal rows across the table called periods.

Each period has different numbers of elements. Period 1 has only 2 elements, hydrogen (H) and Helium (He).

Periods Periods 6 and 7 have 32 elements each. Some of the elements have been placed under the table and shown separately just so that they will fit on the page. The two rows in dark pink are the Lanthanide and Actinide series and they appear at the bottom of the period

table. Properties of Elements An elements physical and chemical properties can be predicted from its location on the periodic table.

Basic Types of Elements Metals are *hard, *shiny, *malleable, * ductile, *conductive of heat and electricity, and *some are

attracted to magnets. *Click on the underlined links to view definitions Metals

Most elements are metals and are found on the left hand side of the periodic table. (Excluding Hydrogen, which is a special element, not like any of the others). Nonmetals are the opposite of

metals. Nonmetals are *dull, *crumbly, *not hard, *not conductive of heat or electricity, and are *not attracted by magnets. The nonmetals are found on the upper right hand area of the periodic table. Metalloids have properties of

both metals and nonmetals. Metalloids have *varying abilities of conducting electricity and this makes them useful as semiconductors used in computers, lasers and transistors. Metalloids are found on the

table between the metals and nonmetals and form a zigzag line separating them. Metalloids Located along the zig-zag line. Aluminum is widely debated as a

by scientists. metalloid Patterns/ Trends on the Periodic Table (more trends click here)

Many physical and chemical properties can be predicted by an elements placement on the periodic table. This is one of the reasons that the table is so useful.

Physical Trends DENSITY is one physical property that usually increases as you move down the group. The MELTING POINTS of metals decrease as you move down the table. Mercury is about the same density as gold so it is useful in separating gold from rocks. Unfortunately, it is very toxic and

has harmed many environments. Chemical properties also form patterns on the table. Metals on the left hand side of the table react readily with other substances. They become less

reactive as you move to the right. Calcium is in group 2 and reacts readily with water. Calcium in water Gold is in group 11 and does not

react with water at all. (It doesnt even rust!) The nonmetals in groups 14-17 become more reactive from left to right.

ALL MY INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS THROW YO HAND UP AT ME!!! Elements in group 18 are different and almost never react with other elements. These are known as

the NOBLE GASES or INERT GASES.

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