Person-environment and Aging

Person-environment and Aging

PERSON-ENVIRONMENT AND AGING What is it? Dynamic, interactive system Person and environment have to be studied jointly A persons behaviour is a function of both the person and their environment especially the persons perception of their

environment Competence and environmental press Competence: best functional capacity of an individual Measured in five areas: 1. Biological health

2. Sensory-perceptual functioning 3. Motor skills 4. Cognitive skills 5. Ego strength Competence and environmental press Environmental press: demands placed

by the environment on each individual The demands can be: 1. Physical 2. Interpersonal 3. Social Lawton and Nahemovs model The less competent a person is, the more impact the environment has

Kahanas Congruence Model People search for environments that best meet their needs Environments vary in their ability to meet different peoples needs and demands Congruence is especially important when options are limited This model is helpful in assessing longterm care facilities Stress and Coping Theory

Older adults adaptation to the environment depends on Their perception of environmental stress and Their attempts to cope Social systems and institutions may buffer the effects of stress Loss-Continuum Concept Aging seen as a progressive series of

losses that reduces ones social participation Therefore, home and neighbourhood become more important Very important to help individuals maintain competence and independence This model is more a practical guide and not a theory Concept of Everyday Competence

Ability to perform behaviours essential for independent living: Physical Psychological Social Willis Model of Everyday Competence Antecedents: individual (e.g. health, cognitive status) and sociocultural (e.g. social policy, health care policy)

Components: intraindividual (how a person experiences their health, cognition) and contextual (how a particular policy is implemented in each case) Mechanisms: variables that can affect expression of competence, e.g. personal perception of selfcompetence or of control Outcomes: primarily physical and psychological wellbeing, the basic components of successful aging What Is Optimal Aging?

Avoiding disease Engaged in life (as opposed to withdrawal) Good cognitive and physical functioning The last two more important: many seniors with diseases age successfully Important: dignity and independence

Strategies Healthy lifestyle Cognitive stimulation

Positive, optimistic outlook Social network Healthy finances Importance of health promotion programs adapted to all groups (SES, ethnicity, etc) Four levels of preventive intervention (see text)

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