Personality - Long Branch Public Schools

Personality - Long Branch Public Schools

Personality Psychology Personality: The Nature of Personality PA R T O N E Personality: The Nature of Personality Personality The unique & relatively stable ways in which people think, feel and behave Not to be confused with

Character Refers to a persons moral & ethical behavior Temperament The enduring characteristics with which each person is born Irritability, adaptability, etc. Personality: The Nature of Personality Big Issues in Personality Nature v. Nurture

Unconscious v. Conscious Is personality genetically encoded or learned? Do you know why you do what you do? Fixed v. Situational Is personality stable or does it change from situation to situation?

Personality: Psychodynamic Perspective PA R T T W O FREUDIA N Theorist: Sigmund Freud Three primary beliefs Childhood experiences determine the adult personality Unconscious mental processes influence everyday behavior Conflict causes most human behavior

Four major theories Personality Structure Levels of Consciousness Defense Mechanisms Development Theory: (1) Personality Structure Part 1: The Id The id is fully intact from the moment of birth

Operates according to the pleasure principle The primitive & instinctive component of our personality Houses unconscious drives such as libido (sex) & aggression

Selfish & irrational Demands INSTANT gratification Primary-Process thinking Theory: (1) Personality Structure Part 2: The Superego Develops during childhood (around the age of 6)

The internalized parent of our personality Causes us to feel guilty for our desires/id impulses Strives for perfection Operates according to the Judicial or Moral Principle Seeks to do what is right and good Theory: (1) Personality Structure Part 3: The Ego Develops during infancy (around the 6th month)

Operates according to the reality principle The decision-making component of our personality Seeks to gratify the ids urges at an appropriate time, given an appropriate outlet; will otherwise delay gratification Secondary-Process thinking

Theory: (2) Levels of Consciousness Conscious Mind Consists of our awareness at any point in time Preconscious Contains material just beneath the surface of awareness; can be easily retrieved Unconscious Mind Contains thoughts, memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness Im just the tip

of the iceberg! Executive mediatio n Freudian-Slip Central Internalized ideals Unconscious urges & desires Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms The inevitable conflict between the id &

the superego produces anxiety This anxiety is inherited by the ego, which uses defense mechanisms (largely unconscious) to better manage it, as well as other unpleasant emotions Types of Anxiety (1) Realistic Anxiety External threat; fear (2) Moral Anxiety

Internal threat from superego (3) Neurotic (Nervous) Anxiety Fear of being dominated by impulses residing in the id Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms Denial Refusing to experience a certain situation Example

Despite being told that their son cheated on the SAT, Mr. and Mrs. Smith refuse to believe that their son is capable of such actions Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms Displacement Redirecting impulses towards an acceptable/symbolic substitute

Example Children who fear expressing anger towards their parents, may displace it by kicking their dog Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms Identification (Introjection) Incorporating personality characteristics associated with someone else into your own personality in order to deal with a specific situation Forming a real or imaginary alliance (with a person or a group) in order to bolster selfesteem; often seen in insecure individuals

Example Joining a fraternity, clique, etc. Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms Projection Attributing ones own unacceptable thoughts to another person Example He doesnt trust me may be a projection of

the actual feeling I dont trust him or I dont trust myself Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms Rationalization Distorting facts to make an event or desire seem less threatening Example Habitual drinkers may say they drink with friends

just to be sociable Reaction Formation To unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites Example People may express feelings of purity when they are suffering from unconscious feelings about sex Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms Regression Retreating to a more

infantile psychosexual stage A reversion to immature patterns of behavior Example A child, anxious about the first day of school, may regress to the oral comfort of thumb-sucking A teenager who throws a temper-tantrum because her

parents wont buy her a car Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms Repression Motivated forgetting Failure to remember a traumatic event Example We do not remember our childhood lust for

our parent (Oedipus/Electra) Theory: (3) Defense Mechanisms Sublimation Transforming an unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable one Example A surgeon becomes a

surgeon so he or she can cut in a socially acceptable manner Theory: (4) Developmental Stages Oral Stage (Age: 0-1.5) Erogenous Zone Mouth Libido satisfied by breast feeding Major Conflict

Weaning Failure to resolve the issue leads to oral fixation Suck/chew things for security Sarcasm, aggressiveness Theory: (4) Developmental Stages Anal Stage (Age: 1.5-3) Erogenous Zone

Anus Libido satisfied by defecating Major Conflict Toilet training Failure to resolve the issue leads to anal fixation Anal Retentive: tightly controlled, OCD, fear of dirt, obsessed with punctuality, etc. Anal Expulsive: messy, unorganized, rebellious, overly giving, obsession with bathroom humor, etc. Theory: (4) Developmental Stages

Phallic Stage (Boys) (Age: 3-6) Erogenous Zone Penis Libido satisfied by genital stimulation Oedipus Complex Desires mother; wants to eliminate father Resolved through castration anxiety

Fears that father will find out & castrate him Relinquishes desire for mother & befriends father out of fear Theory: (4) Developmental Stages Phallic Stage (Girls) (Age: 3-6) Erogenous Zone Clitoris Libido satisfied by genital stimulation Electra Complex + Penis Envy

Reverse of Oedipus Complex (kind of) (More about Electra) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Soon after the libidinal shift to the penis, the girl develops her first sexual impulses towards her mother (Oedipus)

The girl realizes that she is not equipped to have a heterosexual relationship with her mother As a result, she desires a penis, and the power it represents She sees the solution as obtaining her fathers penis; develops a sexual attraction towards him (Electra) The girl now blames her mother for her apparent castration (which she views as punishment for being attracted to her father) (More about Electra) 6. Sexual desire for her father leads to feelings of wanting to eliminate her mother 7. Girl IDENTIFIES with her mother, so that she

might learn to mimic and thus replace her 8. The girl anticipates that this action may lead to punishment 9. The girl employs DISPLACEMENT to shift the object of her sexual desires from her father to men in general 10. The end. Theory: (4) Developmental Stages Phallic Stage (Age: 3-6) Major Conflict Relinquishing desire for the opposite sex parent Failure to resolve this issues leads to fixation

Excessive masturbation; overly flirtatious Excessive modesty Overly proud Promiscuous Theory: (4) Developmental Stages Latency (Age: 7-11) Erogenous Zone None

Sexual feelings are repressed Child develops academic, social and extracurricular skills Typically play in same-sex play groups Theory: (4) Developmental Stages Genital (puberty on) Erogenous Zone

Penis/Vagina Begins when a child hits sexual maturity Normal sexual relationships occur at this stage Personality: Psychodynamic Perspective PA R T T H R E E 1. Carl Jung 2. Alfred Adler 3. Karen Horney

NEOFREUDIAN Theorist: (1) Carl Jung Analytic Psychology Major criticisms of Freud? Believed that Freud went overboard on centering his theory around sexual conflict

Disagreed on the nature of the unconscious mind Jung believed that the unconscious mind consisted of two layers (1) Personal Unconscious (2) Collective Unconscious Theorist: (1) Carl Jung (1) Personal Unconscious Houses material that is not

within ones conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten (Essentially the same as Freuds version of the unconscious) Theorist: (1) Carl Jung (2) Collective Unconscious Houses latent memory traces inherited from peoples ancestral past

Each person shares the collective unconscious with the entire human race Contains the whole spiritual heritage of mankinds evolution, born anew in the brain structure of every individual These ancestral memories are referred to as archetypes Theorist: (1) Carl Jung Archetypes Emotionally charged images and thought forms

that have universal meaning Archetypal images & ideas frequently show up in dreams and are often manifested in a cultures use of symbols in art, literature and religion Theorist: (2) Alfred Adler Individual Psychology Major criticism of Freud?

Believed that Freud went overboard on centering his theory around sexual conflict Adler believed that the foremost source of human motivation is a striving for superiority A universal drive to adapt, improve oneself and master lifes challenges

Theorist: (2) Alfred Adler Other Major Ideas Compensation Inferiority Complex Fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that can lead to emotional and social paralysis Fictional Finalism

The idea that everyone has to work to overcome feelings of inferiority, real or imagined, by developing ones abilities Setting long-term goals that may never be reached, but help you to achieve a sense of satisfaction along the way (Theory of Birth Order) Theorist: (3) Karen Horney

One of the first females in the field Major criticisms of Freud? Believed that Freud went overboard on centering his theory around sexual conflict; womb envy Horney believed that anxiety was one of the most powerful

motivating forces Basic Anxiety Created when a child is born into the bigger & more powerful world of adults and older children Theorist: (3) Karen Horney Believed that those with loving parents would overcome basic anxiety; those that didnt would develop neurotic personalities How do children deal with anxiety and

insecurity? Coping Mechanisms Compliance: move toward others Withdrawal: move away from others Aggression: move against others Evaluation: Psychodynamic Approach In support of Research has demonstrated that

Unconscious forces can influence behavior Internal conflict often plays a key role in generating psychological distress Early childhood experiences can have a powerful impact on adult personality People do use defense mechanisms to reduce their experience of unpleasant emotions Evaluation: Psychodynamic Approach Criticisms of Poor testability

Unrepresentative samples Depend too heavily on clinical cases Sexism Narrow & biased samples

Inadequate evidence Ideas are often too vague and conjectural Many psychodynamic theories are characterized by a sexist bias against women Pessimistic outlook on human nature Personality: Humanistic Perspective PA R T F O U R

Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Personality: Humanistic Perspective Major Assumptions People can rise above their primitive animal heritage People are largely conscious, rational beings who are not dominated by

unconscious, irrational conflicts People are not helpless pawns of deterministic forces Self-Actualizing Tendency Striving to fulfill ones innate capacities & capabilities Theorist: Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective The Self (Self-Concept)

A collection of beliefs about ones own nature, unique qualities and typical behavior More-or-less subjective Im easygoing Im hardworking Im pretty Individuals are aware of their self-concept; it is NOT buried in their unconscious Theorist: Carl Rogers

The Self is divided into 2 major components The Real Self Ones perception of actual characteristics, traits & abilities The Ideal Self

Ones perceptions of whom one should be or would like to be Congruence v. incongruence? Theorist: Carl Rogers Development of the Self Positive Regard Warmth, affection, love and respect that comes from significant others; impacts personality and

happiness Vital to a persons abilities to cope with stress and to strive for self-actualization Unconditional positive regard Will provide overlap between real and ideal self Conditional positive regard Evaluation: Humanistic Approach Criticisms of Poor testability

Unrealistic & naive view of human nature Is anyone really this perfect? What about the human capacity for evil? Inadequate evidence Ideas are often too vague, subjective or conjectural Lacking scientific hypotheses

Though empirical research has been done, it is difficult to quantify human experience Social influence? Personality: Trait Perspective PA R T F I V E Trait theories are less concerned with the explanation for personality development & changing personality, than they are with describing

personality & predicting behavior based on that description Personality: Trait Perspective Trait A consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling or behaving; a characteristic pattern of behavior Trait theorists believe that personality is best explained

in terms of descriptive adjectives and categories comprised of related qualities Theorist: (1) Gordon Allport Trait Theory Cardinal Traits Central Traits

Dominate and shape a persons personality Ruling passions and/or obsessions Desire for money General traits found in every person (to some degree) Honesty Secondary traits Seen only in certain circumstances Certain likes or dislikes Theorist: (2) Raymond Cattell

Factor Analysis Approach A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of correlated test items Used this method to develop a 16 Personality Factor Inventory (16PF) Believed that large groups of traits could be reduced to 16 core personality traits based on statistical correlations Later added 7 for a total of 23 traits

Theorist: (3) Hans Eysenck Biological Trait Theory Suggested that personality could be evaluated on two polar dimensions Extraversion v. introversion Are you social and outgoing? Reserved? Stability v. instability Are you predictable? Spontaneous?

(Psychoticism) Are you EXTREMELY stable, unstable, introverted or extraverted? Theorist: (4) Robert McCrae Todays trait researchers believe that Eysenck s personality dimensions are too narrow and Cattells 16PF are too large The Big-Five (Five-Factor Model) Suggests that most personality traits are derived from FIVE higher-order traits

OCEAN CANOE Evaluation: Trait Perspective Criticisms of Personality traits will not always be expressed in the same way across the same situation Trait-Situation Interaction (Walter Mischel) The assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed As a result, traits are not good predictors of

behavior On the other hand Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different, but average behaviors remain the same Personality: Social-Cognitive Perspective PA R T S I X The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interaction of traits and situations ***Sometimes known as social-behavioral perspective

Theorist: (1) Albert Bandura Social-Cognitive Theory Reciprocal Determinism The idea that internal mental events (cognition), external environmental events and overt behavior all influence one another The environment determines behavior; however, behavior also determines the environment

Self-Efficacy An individuals expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance High levels v. low levels of self-efficacy? Theorist: (2) Julian Rotter Expectancy Theory Personal Control The extent to which people perceive control over their

environment; impacts personality development External Locus of Control The perception that chance or forces beyond ones control determine his or her fate Internal Locus of Control The perception that one controls his or her own fate Theorist: (3) Walter Mischel The Person-Situation Controversy

Asserted that people make responses that they think will lead to reinforcement given the situation at hand Predicts that people will often behave differently in different situations Sparked a major debate regarding: The consistency of personality The relative importance of the person as opposed to

the situation in determining behavior Evaluation: Social-Cognitive Perspective In support of Theories are firmly rooted in extensive empirical research (as opposed to clinical intuition) Situational factors are important in shaping behavior Criticisms of Dehumanizing nature of radical behaviorism

In regards to the denial of free will & the importance of cognitive processes Dilution of the behavioral approach Behavioral theories arent behavioral anymore? Personality: Assessment Strategies PA R T S E V E N Method: (1) Interviews An assessment in which the client is able to answer questions, either in a

structured or unstructured fashion Used by Psychoanalysts Humanistic theorists Method: (1) Interviews Advantages

The inside scoop Disadvantages Distortion of the truth, misremembering, etc. Halo effect The tendency to form a favorable or unfavorable

impression of someone at the first meeting; impacts interpretation of all consecutives meetings Reliability? Method: (2) Projective Tests Assessments that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger the projection of ones inner dynamics (unconscious thoughts)

Used by Psychoanalysts Method: (2) Projective Tests Advantages Provide a starting point for digging deeper into a clients recollections, concerns &

anxieties (?) (Are there any?) Disadvantages Very subjective No standard scoring scale; low reliability and validity Method: (2) Projective Tests Types of Tests Rorschach Inkblot Test (1921)

Thematic Apperception Test, TAT (1935) 20 ambiguous images Subjects are asked to tell a story Sentence Completion Test

10 inkblots (5 in black ink, 5 in colored ink) Subjects are asked to interpret the blots I wish my mother Draw-a-Person Test House-Tree-Person Test Method: (3) Personality Inventories A personality assessment that consists of

statements requiring a specific, standardized response from the person taking the test Used by Trait theorists Method: (3) Personality Inventories Advantages

Standardized; everyone gets the same list of questions Generally scored on a computer Include validity scales Generally more reliable than projective tests Disadvantages Still a form of self-report

Issues? Method: (3) Personality Inventories Types of Tests The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) Based on: Raymond Cattells work

Neuroticism/Extraversion/ Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) Based on: Robert McCraes work Method: (3) Personality Inventories Types of Tests (continued) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Based on: Carl Jungs work

Relies on four personality dimensions Sensing/Intuition Thinking/Feeling Introversion/Extraversion Perceiving/Judging Keirsey Temperament Sorter

Method: (3) Personality Inventories Types of Tests (continued) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Assesses abnormal personality tendencies; widely used in clinical settings Consists of 567 statements such as I am often tense I believe I am being plotted against

Includes 10 clinical validity scales Method: (4) Behavioral Assessment A personality assessment that examines real world behaviors Used by Behavioral psychologists

Social-Cognitive theorists Method: (4) Behavioral Assessment Advantages Allows for the examination of behavior in everyday circumstances Disadvantages

Observer effect Observer bias No control over external environment Method: (4) Behavioral Assessment Types of Tests Direct Observation Rating Scale

Observation of client engaged in ordinary day-today behavior in either a clinical or natural setting An assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to a specific behavior that is listed on the scale Frequency Count An assessment in which the frequency of a particular behavior is counter

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