Persuasion in Text and the Media - Mrs. Hopkins Classroom
Persuasion in Text and the Media 7.11B Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text to identify such rhetorical fallacies as ad hominem, exaggeration, stereotyping or categorical claims in persuasive texts 7.13 Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning A. Students will interpret both explicit and implicit messages in various forms of media B. Students will evaluate various way media influences and informs audiences Persuasive Text
The author tries to convince readers to think or act a certain way. There are several tricks an author may use to persuade their audience: 1. 2. 3. 4. Bias Exaggeration Categorical claim Stereotype
Bias The author can CHOOSE which facts to include and which facts to leave out. Sometimes an author allows their own thoughts, feelings, or beliefs to guide their thinking. This can lead them to ignoring evidence, especially if it doesnt support their beliefs, thoughts, or feelings. Strong emotions can make an author see things from only one side rather than thinking about the facts. This is called bias. Exaggeration An overstatement or stretching of the truth, especially to
inspire reaction For example: Suppose seventh-grade students hold a bake sale and then write letters to the class president about what the proceeds should be spent on. One student says in his letter that the bake sale is the only way to earn money for new uniforms that the baseball team desperately needs. Is this really true? This statement is an example of exaggeration. Categorical Claim
Saying something about one group or thing and implying that it pertains to or represents all of those people or things. For example An author states in an article that cities are dirty and dangerous. The fact that the author doesnt say some cities creates this idea that ALL cities are dirty and dangerous, which is not true. The author made a blanket claim about the whole category of cities. The author did not say ALL cities were dirty and dangerous, but implies it by not saying that only some are. Stereotype
A oversimplified idea about someone or something held in common by many people. Implies a prejudiced attitude about a specific group or thing. For example: An author says that teenagers need to spend more time studying and less time partying. Whats wrong with that statement? This statement is ASSUMING that all teenagers are irresponsible people. Another form of persuasion: Media Messages Media: the means of communication, such as radio and
television, newspapers, magazines and the internet. The reach of media is wide and often used for influence. Ways of persuading in the media is through Ad Hominem Explicit messages Implicit messages Ad Hominem Used to sway peoples opinions by attacking an opponents character. They can even used bias facts or other peoples experiences and opinions as their facts to make the claim more creditable.
For example: In a race for town mayor, a candidate may accuse his or her opponent of not paying taxes. It is used to belittle the opponents character and paints them as dishonest. This comment may or may not be true, the candidate doesnt have to present proof, they can simply state it and let others argue the facts. Confusing Messages In media messages, its not just what person or advertisement says, but how the message is
presented, that conveys meaning. The media may use a sound to catch a viewers attention. Lighting can be used to convey a particular mood, whereas in print they must rely on authors diction. They can use a formal or serious tone for certain times of the day or certain messages and an informal, lighthearted tone at other times of the day when they know the audience is tired or stressed from the day. Explicit vs. Implicit Explicit messages are CLEARY stated.
This bike was given a five-star safety rating States a fact It is clear that the message is the bike is safe Explicit vs. Implicit Implicit messages are harder to spot, but they are just as powerful and influential. Appeal to your senses by making you feel a certain way. Both appeal to and influence tastes, interests and hobbies
Rely on assumptions about our society A commercial for a luxury car will show people wearing expensive clothing driving it somewhere exotic or exciting. Wants to give the audience the idea if they but that car they too can have a luxurious lifestyle that goes with it. DONT BE FOOLED As consumers it is your job to critically look at these things to decide if someone is trying to convince you without you realizing it. You need to know your beliefs and values, so others cant influence you as easily
When you dont know what you stand for, youll fall for anything. Thinking it Through Read the following paragraph and then answer the questions that follow. Jogging may be good for you, but the is an increasing traffic problem with the number of joggers in the park each morning. They have no concern for others. Not only do they get in one anothers way, they have taken to running in the bike lanes and blocking the way for riders. Joggers think they own the road, but they need to learn how to share. What persuasive technique is used in the paragraph? How can you tell?
Thinking it Through Jogging may be good for you, but the is an increasing traffic problem with the number of joggers in the park each morning. They have no concern for others. Not only do they get in one anothers way, they have taken to running in the bike lanes and blocking the way for riders. Joggers think they own the road, but they need to learn how to share. What persuasive technique is used in the paragraph? How can you tell? Categorical Claim they are implying that ALL joggers are rude and selfish
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