Pest Management Classes, Functions, Methods Pests Any organism that interferes in some way with human welfare or activities 100 species cause 90% of damage PEST MANAGEMENT
Natural predators control most pest populations as part of the earths free ecological services. Spiders kill far more insects than insecticides do
Historical Use of Pesticides Natural Pesticides - We use chemicals to repel or kill pest organisms as plants have done for millions of years. 1600s nicotine from tobacco 1800s pyrethrum from chrysanthemum flower Synthetic Pesticides -Chemists have developed hundreds of chemicals that can kill or repel pests. Many developed from chemicals used in WWII Pesticides vary in their persistence.
Each year > 250,000 people in the U.S. become ill from household pesticides. Chemical pesticides 25% - non agriculture use (lawns, golf courses, etc) Average lawn gets 10x more per acre than cropland Figure 13-28 Classification of
Pesticides Specific Types: Herbicides A toxic chemical that kills plants Insecticides A toxic chemical that kills insects Other Pesticides
Rodenticides A toxic chemical that kills rodents Fungicides A toxic chemical that kills fungi Nematicides A toxic chemical that kills nematodes (roundworms) Algaecides
A toxic chemical that kills algae Bactericides A toxic chemical that kills bacteria Piscicides A toxic chemical that kills fish (unwanted species) Hard/Persistent Pesticides Characteristics:
retain their toxicity for long periods of time They work their way up the food chain accumulate in their fatty tissues and stay indefinitely. Examples DDT and many other chlorinated hydrocarbons. Soft Pesticides Characteristics
Reduced-risk pesticides. short-term less harm to environment or man. Examples soaps, oils, plant extracts, baking soda, and dish liquid. Benefits of Pesticide Usage
Disease Control Save human lives Prevent insect-transmitted diseases, Malaria, Zika, West Nile - mosquito, plague -rat fleas, typhus - body lice & fleas sleeping sickness tsetse fly Food Production
Increase food supplies and lower food costs. About 55% of the worlds food supply is lost to pests before (35%) and after (20%) harvest. These losses would be worse and food prices would rise.
Non-Food Crop Production Protects Crops such as cotton boll weevil Bamboo Christmas tree farms Flowers Ornamentals Biopharmaceuticals Efficiency When Compared to
Alternatives Pesticides control most pests quickly & at reasonable cost. They have a long shelf life Easily shipped and applied Are safe when handled properly. When genetic resistance occurs, farmers can use stronger doses or switch to other pesticides. Proponents feel they are safer than the alternative Development of Safer Pesticides
Botanicals and micro-botanicals safer to users and less damaging to the environment. Genetic engineering: developing pest-resistant crop strains. use less / no pesticides Very expensive to develop so they are only doing it for large-market crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans.
Problems with Pesticide Usage Genetic Resistance Pesticide use accelerates development of resistant organisms Pests breed quickly within 5-10 years - can develop immunity to pesticides and come back stronger than before. Weeds and plant-diseases also become resistant.
Creates pesticide treadmill - having to use more pesticides that will continue to have less effect Pesticide Treadmill Superpests Superpests are resistant to pesticides. Superpests like the silver whitefly cause $200 million per year in U.S. crop losses. At least 17 insect pest species are resistant to all major
classes of insecticides Growing Germ Resistance to Antibiotics infectious bacteria are becoming genetically resistant to widely used antibiotics due to: Genetic resistance: Spread of bacteria around the globe by humans, overuse of pesticides which produce pesticide resistant insects that carry bacteria
Overuse of antibiotics: A 2000 study found that half of the antibiotics used to treat humans were prescribed unnecessarily. Formation of New Pests Turning of minor pest into major pests. Unintended consequences Kill the predators/competitors of one pest Allows a new pest population to grow
Ex: using insecticides to kill spiders outside your house will cause ant populations to increase Impact on Non-target Organisms Pesticides dont stay put. Runoff Leach 2% of the insecticides reach target pests
5% of herbicides reach target weeds. They end up in the environment Food/Water Contamination Pesticides run off into our water & stay on our food. Can harm wildlife and threaten human health Dirty dozen / Clean 15
Fruits and veggies with the Most / Least amount of pesticide residue Persistence Many pesticides stay in the environment for a very long time. Biomagnification of DDT Increase severity
higher up in the food chain. Bioaccumulation / Biomagnification Increase in the concentration of a chemical in specific organs or tissues at a level higher than normal. Stored in body fat Impacts organisms higher on the food chain.
Bioaccumulation an increased concentration of a chemical within a single organism over time The same 3 fish as they grow over lifetime Biomagnificatio n
the increase in a chemical concentration in animal tissues as the chemical moves up the food chain. Minamata, Japan
Mercury waste dumped in Minamata Bay by a factory from 1930s to 1960s Killed 90% of fish in area entered humans through their diet of seafood. Caused mental impairments, seizures, birth defects, and death Fish caught in area still have high concentration today Pesticide Poisoning (Toxicity) Short-term exposure to
high levels of pesticides can result in harm to organs and even death (Acute) Long-term exposure to lower levels of pesticides can cause cancer. (Chronic) Children are at a greater risk than adults.
Pesticide Poisoning Symptoms Nausea, vomiting, and headaches. More serious can result in damage to the nervous system & other body organs. The W.H.O. estimates that more than 3 million people are poisoned by pesticides each year
about 220,000 die. Carcinogen - National Cancer Institute Many Pesticides have been shown to cause cancer: lymphomas, leukemia, brain, lung, and testicular Link to breast cancer being investigated Researchers have noted a correlation between high level of pesticides in the breast's fatty tissue and cancer.
LD-50 Lethal Dose The LD-50 is the amount of pesticide it will take, in one dose, to kill of all the target organisms (usually rats & mice). To establish the lethal dose: Dose-response analysis exposes organisms to different concentrations of toxins. Threshold dose occurs once there is a negative effect
How Pesticides Function Nervous System Some interfere with the nervous system, cause uncontrollable muscle twitching or paralysis. Some are nervous system poisons. Ex. Spectracide, Nicotine, DDT, Dursban, & Diazinon.
Photosynthesis Some pesticides inhibit photosynthesis and prevent chlorophyll formation. Ex. Stampede, Pyrazon. Smothering The vapors kill the pest by suffocating the animal. Soap can smother soft bodies of insects. Powder can block breathing tubes of fleas
Ex. flea collars, pest strip, and soap. Dehydration Dehydration uses the fossilized remains of tiny, one-celled organisms called diatoms. It kills insects by scratching their wax outer covering and causing them to dehydrate.
This is a soft pesticide. Inhibition of Blood Clotting Other types of pesticides cause animals (especially rats) to bleed to death by preventing their blood from clotting. The Ideal Pesticide The ideal pest-killing chemical has these qualities:
Kill only target pest. Not cause genetic resistance in the target organism. Disappear or break down into harmless chemicals after doing its job. Inexpensive. There is no such product - always trade-offs Pesticides and the Law EPA
The EPA & USDA & FDA are responsible for the overseeing the laws. Research Pesticide companies must use 3 methods to determine pesticides health threats: Case Reports (made to physicians) about people suffering from adverse health effects Laboratory Investigations (usually on animals) to determine toxicity, residence time, what parts of the
body are affected and how the harm takes place. Epidemiology (in populations of humans exposed) used to find why some people get sick while others do not Days to Harvest The last day you can spray crops before you harvest them for human consumption.
Restrictions The EPA sets a tolerance level specifying the amount of toxic pesticide residue that can legally remain on the crop when the consumer eats it. MRL max residue level FFDCA Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Strengthened in 1996
Sets pesticide tolerance levels FIFRA The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide & Rodenticide Act It was first established in 1947 & revised as recently as 1996. States what must be on a pesticide label & requires registration of all pesticides.
Label Requirements the brand name the ingredient statement the percentage or amount of active ingredient(s) by weight the net contents of the container the name and address of the manufacturer Registration and establishment numbers Signal words and symbols Precautionary statement
Statement of practical treatment Environmental hazard statement Classification statement Directions for use Re-entry statement Harvesting and/or grazing restrictions Storage and disposal statement. FQPA Food Quality Protection Act
Established in 1996 Amends both FIFRA and FFDCA. Problems with enforcement Lack of time and money to test all compounds Inadequate enforcement Pre-1972 pesticides dont have as strict standards Banned or unregistered pesticides can be shipped to other countries Imported food may have unsafe levels of pesticide
residue Rachel Carson Rachel Carson lived from 1907 to 1964. She published her famous work Silent Spring in 1962.(no birds left to sing) it is possible to lay down such a barrage of poisons on the surface of the earth without making it unfit for life? Increased public awareness of dangers of
pesticide use including poisoning wildlife and contaminating human food supplies. Resulted in DDT ban in US Grassroots environmental movement Formation of EPA What Can You Do? Reducing Exposure to Pesticides
Grow some of your food using organic methods. Buy organic food. Wash and scrub all fresh fruits, vegetables, and wild foods you pick. Eat less or no meat. Trim the fat from meat.
Fig. 13-30, p. 299 Other Ways to Control Pests There are cultivation, biological, and ecological alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides. Fool the pest through cultivation practices. Provide homes for the pest enemies. Implant genetic resistance.
Bring in natural enemies. Use pheromones to lure pests into traps. Use hormones to disrupt life cycles. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) A limited use of pesticides along with other practices. Important as a form of pollution prevention reduces risk to wildlife and humans Not a complete elimination of pesticide
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Pest control practices where each crop and its pests are evaluated as part of an ecological system. A program is developed that includes crop management intercropping or polyculture, and biological and chemical controls. The aim is not to eradicate pest populations, but to reduce crop damage to an economically
tolerable level. Increasing number of pest control experts and farmers believe IPM is the best way to control crop pests because many different methods are used Intercropping: peas and corn
Stages in IPM Crop management and monitoring of pest levels are ongoing. When crop damage becomes unacceptable, farmers implement control measures in sequence and with the proper timing. Stage 1: Cultivation controls, intercropping, hand weeding and vacuuming crops to remove insect
pests. Hand weeding Stage 3: Chemical Controls Targeted pesticide use, mostly based on natural insecticides. Different chemicals are used to slow the development of resistance. Cereal Research Centre, AAFC
Stage 2: Biological controls, such as pheromone traps, and natural predators, parasites, and disease organisms. Pheromone trap Physical rotating between different crops,
selecting pest-resistant varieties, vacuuming up harmful bugs. Photodegradable Plastics Using plastic to keep weeds from sprouting between crops. Timing of Application
Adjusting planting times so that major insect pests either starve or get eaten by their natural predators. Type of Crops Switching from vulnerable monocultures to intercroping, agroforestry, and polyculture use plant diversity to reduce losses to pests. Biological Pest Control
Biological control (biocontrol) is a management tool for controlling pests using parasites, predators, disease organisms. Control agents with a botanical or microbial origin (e.g. Bt toxin) are classified as biopesticides. Biological control is an important part of IPM but it is not risk free.
Ladybugs are voracious predators of aphids The cane toad (right) was introduced to Australia to control gray cane beetle and is now a major threat to native wildlife by displacing native species. Photo: Ian Smith Some biocontrol agents may even
become pests themselves attacking beneficial species. Cane toad Biological Predators/parasites Using natural predators & parasites to control population of pests. Biological pest control:
Wasp parasitizing a gypsy moth caterpillar. Lady bud eating aphids Figure 13-31 Diseases Using disease organisms (bacteria and viruses) to control pests. Natural Repellants
Garlic, sulfur, pyrethrins (from chrysanthemums) to help control pests. Microbials Used for insect wars, especially by organic farmers. The Bacillus thruingensis (Bt) Common soil bacteria toxin is a registered pesticide sold commercially as a
dry powder. Each of the thousands of strains of this common soil bacteria kill a specific pest. Bt Corn has Bt gene Pheromones Synthesized bug sex attractant used to lure pests into traps or attract their predators. Genetic Methods
GMO- Genetically Modified Organism Can be controversial Banned in Europe Advantages: Genetically Modified Faster / more specific than traditional
breeding techniques Higher yields per acre -less land is needed. Can use with low/no till - reduces soil erosion, energy consumption and water loss. Can Transfer beneficial traits: Lower fertilizer/pesticide requirement, Resistant: drought, disease, frost, salinity and pest lower pesticide use Better taste, faster growing, more nutritious, etc
Disadvantages: May impact beneficial insects Native plant diversity impacted - biodiversity Lower genetic variability gene pool Unintended long term consequences possible Patented - controlled by few companies The process of making a
genetically modified organism. Sterilization Males of some insect species can be raised in the laboratory, sterilized by radiation or chemicals, and released into an infested area to mate unsuccessfully with fertile wild females. Males are sterilized rather than females because the male insects mate several times, whereas
the females only mate once. Sterilization: Screw worm Fly lays flesh eating maggots in wounds of animalsreally gross! modern cattle industry provided many thousands of cows as potential hosts for the fly serious outbreak in the southern US in 1934 resulted in over 1.3 million cases of infestation and the death of over 200,000 animals. During 1959, about two billion male screwworm flies sterilized by
gamma-irradiation were released in FL similar program was initiated in the southwestern states in 1962 and later along the Texas-Mexico border These efforts involved the release of as many as one billion sterile male flies every year The screwworm was declared eradicated in the United States by 1966 2016 They are back!!! outbreak in Florida No Pesticide Use
Organic Farming Advantages of Organic Farming Advantages of organic farming include: Farmers can still make use of new high yielding crop varieties (right). Produce is pesticide free and produced sustainably.
Crop type is more closely matched to the appropriate season and soil. Increases crop diversity and disrupts disease and pest cycles. Improves soil quality and structure, reducing nutrient and water loss. Decreased fossil fuels, climate impacts, extraction impacts, and air pollutants
Traditional haymaking, Ireland Disadvantages of Organic Farming Yields are lower more land is required Produce may be more expensive to buy, Organic produce
of reduced quality and with a shorter shelf life. Consumer choice may be restricted if out of season. may be bacterial contamination due to use of manures. Muck spreading
valbard rnational ed Vault The Svalbard International Seed Vault on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen, 1000km from the
North pole is one of the worlds newest seed vaults. It accepted its first seeds on the 26th of February 2008. Image:Global Crop Diversity Trust Photo:Global Crop Diversity Trust Mari Tefre
It is built into the side of a sandstone mountain, surrounded by permafrost and cooled to -18oC. The vault has meter thick walls, two air
locks and blast-proof doors. Svalbard International Seed Vault Living Fort Knox: designed to protect the specimens from catastrophic events, used to replenish national seed banks. Some crops, such as peas, may only survive for 20-30 years. Others, such as sunflowers and grain crops, are understood to last for many decades or even hundreds of
years. Photo:Global Crop Diversity Trust Mari Tefre Image:Global Crop Diversity Trust Sustainable Agriculture An integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term.
More Less High yield polyculture Soil erosion Organic fertilizers Salinization
Biological pest control Integrated pest management Irrigation efficiency Perennial crops Crop rotation Aquifer depletion Overgrazing and overfishing Loss of biodiversity Loss of prime cropland
Food waste Use of more water-efficient crops Population growth Soil conservation Poverty
Subsidies for more sustainable farming and fishing Subsidies for unsustainable farming and fishing
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