Phases of the French Revolution

Phases of the French Revolution

Phases of the French Revolution It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity Ancien Regime Everyone was a subject of the king of France as well as a member of an estate and province. All rights and status flowed from the social institutions, divided into

three orders: clergy, nobility, and others (the Third Estate). There was no national citizenship. Moderate Stage Review 1789-1792 Cashiers De Doleances Tennis Court Oath Goal was to draft a constitution Soaring price of bread 1788 bread was 50% of a workers income 1789 bread was 80% of a workers income

Fall of the Bastille The Great Fear Rumor of aristocrats forming an army to kill the peasants Moderate Stage Review 1789-1792 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Gospel of the new French social order October Days King Louis tries to get help from foreign powers King Louis tries to escape France

Revolutionaries form a constitution The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class Small shopkeepers. Tradesmen. Artisans. Privilege of wealth taking the place of the privilege of birth. The Bourgeoisie taking the place of the aristocracy. The Radical Stage 1792-1794

Thomas Paine- The best form of government was the one that governed the least The San-Culottes had a vision of the nation as one of small shopkeepers and small farmers. Not a nation of the wealthy. Attitudes & actions of monarchy & court Fear of CounterRevoluti on

Religio us divisio ns The Causes of Instability in France 1792 - 1795 Econom ic Crises: Assigna t inflatio n

War Political division s: Jacobins v Girondi ns Flight to Varennes King, Queen and their immediate family tried to escape France They were recognized by an innkeeper from Louiss picture on an assignat.

Captured and returned to Paris, imprisoned at Tuileries Palace. Made many mistakes, delays, and Louis did not realize how disliked he was throughout the countryside. The Storming of the Tuilieres: August 9-10, 1792 The capture, imprisonment and eventual execution of King Louis XVI Louis XVIs Head (January 21, 1793)

c The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. c They proved conclusively Louis knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention.

c The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs. The September Massacres, 17 92 (The dark side of the Revolution!)

Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front. Estimates are as high as 1,400 people killed in the streets of Paris for being traitors or spys. It discredited the Revolution among its remaining sympathizers abroad. The National Convention Its(September,

first act was the1792) formal abolition of the monarchy on September 22, 1792. The Year I of the French Republic. The Decree of Fraternity it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes, all of Europe catches

The proof necessary to convict the enemies of the people is every kind of evidence, either material or moral or verbal or written. . . . Every citizen has the right to seize conspirators and counter-revolutionaries and to arraign them before magistrates. He is required to denounce them when he knows of them. Law of 22 Prairial Year II (June 10, 1794) Attempts to Control 1. Revolutionary Tribunal in Paris 5 the Growing

Judges, 12 man Jury and a prosecutor. 1. Goal was toCrisis try and prevent bloodshed as seen in the September Massacres 2. The number of executions ordered by the Paris Tribunal was moderate: in its 25 months of operation approximately 2750 people were executed, though 2250 were also acquitted. Attempts to Control the Growing 2. The printing of more assignats to pay for the Crisis war.

3. Committee of Public Safety [CPS] e to oversee and speed up the work of the government during this crisis. 4. Committee of General Security [CGS] e responsible for the pursuit of counter-revolutionaries, the treatment of suspects, & other internal security matters. Maximillian Robespierre (1758 1794) Radical revolutionary that was elected leader of the

Committee of Public Safety. Under his reign the committee became more and more powerful and he ruled France, but only for a year Georges Jacques Danton Chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy, but was moderate by French revolution terms. (1759 1794) The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday David Marat- Radical Jacobin newspaper editor. He had a skin condition that forced him

to spend a lot of time in a bath where he would write and edit for his paper. He is credited with organizing the September Massacres. Charlotte Corday- Girondin supporter, wanted to stop the radicalness of the revolution. The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday What impression do you ge t from this painting? Can you provide a bias/POV statement? What about this

one? What impression do you get from this painting? Can you write a bias/POV statement? Corday, pictured as sweet and beautiful, someone who could not be guilty of murder for no good reason. Review- Warm-Up After the trial and execution of Louis XVI, the leaders of the revolution had no choice but to move forward. WHY

The new National Assembly faced massive problems, which were? Inflation Food shortages Peasant rebellions Foreign War Brink of Civil War Girondins: Moderate reformers who favored decentralized government, and little government involvement in the economy Let the various provinces govern their own affairs

Jacobins: Radical reformers who wanted a centralized government, to make Paris the capital, and full government control of the economy Won support of the Sans-Culottes Goal of the Jacobins Republic of Virtue: to do all the good one can to ones neighbor and to behave with justice towards all men To promote and defend the general will This could not become a reality without removing the threat of civil and foreign war Thus the need to temporarily take control and flush out all counter-revolutionaries

Legislation Passed by the National Convention 1. Law of General Maximum September 5, 1793. Limited prices of grain & other essentials to 1/3 above the 1790 prices & wages to of 1790 figures. Prices would be strictly enforced. Hoarders rooted out and punished. Food supplies would be secured by the army! 2. Law of Suspects

e September 17, 1793. e This law was so widely drawn that almost anyone not expressing enthusiastic support for the republic could be placed under arrest! Warm-Up: Primary Source ReadingRobespierre Speech What does Robespierre means when he argues that terror flows from virtue? Arguing Both Sides: How does the use of terror support the essence of the revolution

How does the use of terror defy the essence of the revolution How can this speech be interpreted as an Enlightenment attack on the Ancien Regime carried to its logical conclusion? The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day!c The Revolutionary Video Tribunal of Paris alone

executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. c The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000! Religious Terror: De-Christianization (17931794) The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution.

WHY? Religion was associated with the Ancien Rgime and superstitious practices. Very popular among the sansculottes. Therefore, religion had no place in a

Warm-Up What is the purpose of the Terror? What is Civic Virtue? The De-Christianization Program 1. The adoption of a new Republican Calendar: e abolished Sundays & religious holidays. e months named after seasonal features. e 7-day weeks replaced by 10-day decades. e the yearly calendar was dated from

the creation of the Republic [Sept. 22, 1792] The Convention symbolically divorced the state from the Church!! The New Republican Calendar New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 October 21 Brumaire

Fog October 22 November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 January 19

Pluviose Rain January 20 February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 March 20 Germinal Budding

March 21 April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 June 18 Messidor

Harvest June 19 July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 September 21

A New Republican I 1792 1793 Calendar Year II 1793 1794 III 1794 1795 IV 1795 1796

V 1796 1797 VI 1797 1798 VII 1798 1799 VIII 1799 1800

IX 1800 1801 X 1801 1802 XI 1802 1803 XII 1803 1804

XIII 1804 1805 XIV 1805 The Gregorian System returned in 1806. The De-Christianization Program 2. The public exercise of religion was banned. 3. The Paris Commune supported the:

e destruction of religious & royal statues. e ban on clerical dress. e encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations. 4. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was turned into the Temple of Reason. The Temple of Reason Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple, The Radicals

Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution! The Terror Intensified: March to July, 1794 Jacques Jacques Hbert Hbert & & the the Hrbetists

Hrbetists Executed in March, 1794 Danton Danton & & the the Indulgents Indulgents Executed in April, 1794 Law of 22 Prairial [June 10, 1794]. Trials were now limited to deciding only on liberty OR death, with defendants having no rights.

Were you an enemy of the people? (the law was so broadly written that almost anyone could fall within its definition!) 1,500 executed between June & July. Different Social Classes Executed 7 8 % % 28 % 25

% 31 % French Victory at Fleurus June 26, 1794. France defeated Austria. This opened the way to the reoccupation of Belgium! The Monster Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!

The Thermidorean Reaction, 1794 P July 26 Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies. he alienated members of the CPS & CGS. many felt threatened by his implications. P July 27 the Convention arrests Robespierre.

P July 28 Robespierre is tried & guillotined in one day! The Arrest of Robespierre Video- https:// The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793

Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794. 10 Minute Quick Write Would you consider the French Revolution a successful revolution under Robespierre? Why or why not? Make sure you cite elements of before and after to justify your answer. Goal- 3/4th of a page

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