Tactical Combat Casualty Care Update: 2015 Naval Aeromedical Conference 14 January 2015 Disclaimer The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Departments of the Army, Air Force, Navy or the Department of Defense.
Joint Trauma System Overview Coalition forces at this point in time have the best definitive care and evacuation system in history. TCCCs job is to make sure that the casualties get to the hospital alive so that they can benefit from it 3 87% of combat fatalities die in the prehospital phase. Tactical Combat Casualty Care The Prehospital Arm of the Joint Trauma System
Medics, Corpsmen, PJs TCCC Combat Lifesavers All Combatant Self/Buddy Care Includes Tactical Evacuation Care 4 Photo MSG Harold Montgomery Preventable Death on the Battlefield: OEF and OIF
Eastridge 2012 Study 4,596 U.S. deaths 87% of combat fatalities were pre-hospital 24% of these deaths were potentially preventable 4 BLUF The U.S. military was not optimally prepared to care for combat casualties at the start of OEF. We have made great advances in trauma care in
the last 13 years, both in TCCC and in the JTS CPGs, BUT these advances have at present been unevenly incorporated into both our medical and line organizations. So - whats the plan to improve? Battlefield Trauma Care: Then (2001) Based on trauma courses NOT developed for combat Medics taught NOT to use tourniquets No hemostatic agents No junctional tourniquets Large volume crystalloid fluid resuscitation for shock
2 large bore IVs on all casualties with significant trauma Civil War-vintage technology for battlefield analgesia (IM morphine) No focus on prevention of trauma-related coagulopathy No tactical context for care rendered Heavy emphasis on endotracheal intubation for 8 prehospital airway management
Preventable Combat Deaths from Not Using Tourniquets Maughon Mil Med 1970: Vietnam 193 of 2,600 7.4% of total fatalities Kelly J Trauma 2008: OEF + OIF (2006) 77 of 982 7.8% of total fatalities no better then Vietnam
Eastridge J Trauma 2012: OEF + OIF 119 of 4,596 2.6% of total fatalities 67% decrease 9 Battlefield Trauma Care: Now
Phased care in TCCC Aggressive use of tourniquets in CUF Combat Gauze as hemostatic agent Aggressive needle thoracostomy
Sit up and lean forward airway positioning Surgical airways for maxillofacial trauma Hypotensive resuscitation with Hextend IVs only when needed/IO access if required PO meds, OTFC, ketamine as Triple Option for battlefield analgesia Hypothermia prevention; avoid NSAIDs Battlefield antibiotics Tranexamic acid Junctional Tourniquets 10
TCCC: A Brief History Original paper published 1996 First used by Navy SEALs, Army Rangers, and Air Force Pararescue in 1997 Updates published in PHTLS manual since 1999 ACS COT and NAEMT endorsement USSOCOM adopted in 2005 Now used throughout the U.S. military Allied nations and civilian sector
11 Eliminating Preventable Death on the Battlefield Kotwal et al Archives of Surgery 2011 All Rangers and docs trained in TCCC U.S. military preventable deaths: 24% Ranger preventable death incidence: 3%12 Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care (CoTCCC)
First funded by USSOCOM in 2001-2002 at the Naval Operational Medicine Institute (NOMI) Later sponsored by Navy and Army Surgeons General, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research and the Joint Trauma System 42 members - all services Trauma Surgery, EM, Critical Care, operational physicians and PAs; medical educators; combat medics, corpsmen, and PJs 100% deployed experience Relocated to the Defense Health Board in 2007 at the direction of ASD/HA Moved to the Joint Trauma System in 2013 13
TCCC Team 2014 CoTCCC/JTS PLUS
Prehospital Trauma Life Support/NAEMT Trauma and Injury Subcommittee - DHB Special Operations Medicine Designated TCCC Experts Service Surgeons General/TMO offices COCOM Surgeons offices Other government agencies USAISR + other military medical research labs Coalition partner nations Defense Health Agency MEDLOG
Armed Forces Medical Examiner System 14 Combat medical schoolhouses TCCC Guidelines Changes 2010-2012 Fluid resuscitation in TACEVAC (1:1 FFP/PRBCs when feasible) - 2010 Combat Ready Clamp - 2011 Tranexamic Acid - 2011 Bilateral needle decompression in traumatic cardiac arrest - 2011 Ketamine as an analgesic option in TCCC - 2012
Management of TBI in TCCC - 2012 Supraglottic Airways - 2012 Lateral site for needle decompression - 2012 TCCC Guidelines Changes 2013 Updated TCCC Card (DD Form 1380) And the accompanying AAR Vented chest seals Additional junctional tourniquets JETT and SAM Junctional Splint Triple-Option Analgesia Strategy Hemostatic dressings
Added Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze as backups TCCC Guidelines Changes 2014 All TCCC change papers are now published in the JSOM Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Guideline Change 13-05: 23 March 2014 Alternative Hemostatic Dressings Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze are as effective as Combat Gauze at hemorrhage control in laboratory studies:
Rall JM, Cox JM, Songer AG, et al. Comparison of novel hemostatic gauzes to QuikClot Combat Gauze in a standardized swine model of uncontrolled hemorrhage. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013; 75(2 Suppl 2):S150-6. Satterly S, Nelson D, Zwintscher N, et al. Hemostasis in a noncompressible hemorrhage model: An end-user evaluation of hemostatic agents in a proximal arterial injury. J Surg Educ. 2013;70(2):206-11. Watters JM, Van PY, Hamilton GJ, et al. Advanced hemostatic dressings are not superior to gauze for care under fire scenarios. J Trauma 2011;70:1413-18. Schwartz RB, Reynolds BZ, Shiver SA, et al. Comparison of two packable hemostatic
Gauze dressings in a porcine hemorrhage model. Prehosp Emerg Care 2011;15:477482 Alternative Hemostatic Dressings Neither ChitoGauze nor Celox Gauze have been tested in the USAISR safety model, but Chitosan-based hemostatic dressings have been used in combat since 2004 with no safety issues reported. Tactical Field Care
Guidelines 4. Bleeding b. For compressible hemorrhage not amenable to tourniquet use or as an adjunct to tourniquet removal (if evacuation time is anticipated to be longer than two hours), use Combat Gauze as the CoTCCC hemostatic dressing of choice. Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze may also be used if Combat Gauze is not available. Hemostatic dressings should be applied with at least 3 minutes of direct pressure. .. Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Guideline Change 14-01 2 June 2014 Fluid Resuscitation from Hemorrhagic Shock Why a change was needed: Last TCCC update on fluid resuscitation was November 2011 In the interim, there have been a number of publications related to:
Hypotensive resuscitation Dried plasma Adverse effects from resuscitation with both crystalloids and colloids Prehospital resuscitation with thawed and liquid plasma and RBCs The benefits of fresh whole blood (FWB) use Resuscitation from controlled hemorrhage shock Fluid Resuscitation from
Hemorrhagic Shock Why a change was needed Additionally, recently published studies describe an increased use of blood products by coalition forces in Afghanistan during Tactical Evacuation (TACEVAC) Care and even in Tactical Field Care (TFC). Resuscitation with RBCs and plasma has been associated with improved survival on the platforms that use them, even in the relatively short evacuation times seen in Afghanistan in recent years. Future conflicts in other geographic combatant commands such as the U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM), the U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), and the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) may have prolonged evacuation times and may include the need to consider preevacuation treatment aboard ships at sea.
Fluid Resuscitation from Hemorrhagic Shock What this change does Provides an order of precedence for resuscitation fluids Documents the evidence for the order recommended Encourages the use of prehospital blood components when feasible, to include Tactical Field Care in some settings Fluid Resuscitation from Hemorrhagic Shock
What this change does Makes the fluid resuscitation plan the same for both TFC and TACEVAC Care Incorporates dried and liquid plasma into the fluid options Fluid Resuscitation from Hemorrhagic Shock Updated Fluid Resuscitation Plan Order of precedence for fluid resuscitationof casualties in hemorrhagic shock 1. Whole blood 2. 1:1:1 plasma:RBCs:platelets
3. 1:1 plasma and RBCs 4. (tie) Plasma (liquid, thawed, dried) or RBCs alone 8. Hextend 9. (tie) Lactated Ringers or Plasma-Lyte A Why Not These Fluids? Albumin not recommended for casualties with TBI Voluven More expensive than Hextend Also reported to cause kidney injury
Normal saline causes a hyperchloremic acidosis Hypertonic saline Volume expansion is larger than NS, but short-lived Found to be not superior to NS in a large study Most-studied concentration (7.5%) is not FDA-approved Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guideline Change 14-02 Revised Tourniquet Guidelines Col Stacy Shackelford 28 October 2014
Revised Tourniquet Guidelines Mandatory 2-hour check Extremity lost to an 8-hour tourniquet Incorrect never take TQ off in the field taught at the units TCCC course Tourniquet placement High and tight if unable to clearly see the source of the bleeding Single-slit routing appears to work not manufacturer recommended at this point
TCCC Guidelines: Proposed Changes 2015 Ondansetron instead of promethazine for nausea and/or vomiting LCDR Dana Onifer Cric-Key for surgical airways LTC Bob Mabry Abdominal Aortic Junctional Tourniquet COL Samual Sauer XSTAT
SGMs Sims and Bowling; MSG Montgomery iTClamp Dr. Don Jenkins TCCC Strategic Messaging TCCC curriculum now updated yearly Interim change packages as changes approved TCCC Guidelines: The What TCCC Curriculum:
The How MPHTLS Text: The Why Military units that have trained all of their members in Tactical Combat Casualty Care have documented the lowest incidence of preventable deaths among their casualties in the history of modern warfare. TCCC Distribution List
TCCC interim change packages Quarterly TCCC Journal Watch Quarterly TCCC Article Abstracts Other TCCC-related items of interest To be added to the list: [email protected] 35 TACEVAC Care: Factors That Improve Survival Critical Care Flight Paramedics vs EMT-Bs on
evacuation platforms Mabry: Journal of Trauma paper 2012 60-minute maximum evacuation time 2009 SecDef directive Advanced capability evacuation platforms MERT vs PEDRO and DUSTOFF Apodaca and Morrison papers Defense Health Board memo 36 Critical-Care Flight Paramedics Mabry J Trauma 2012
Trauma patients with ISS of 16 or higher 2 cohorts CCFP vs EMT-B in Army MEDEVAC Same geographic area in Afghanistan; 2007-2010 EMT-B cohort (n=469) had 15% 48-hr mortality CCFP cohort (n=202) had 8% 48-hr mortality
New Army MEDEVAC standard is CCFP Medical Evacuation Proponency Directorate Joint Trauma System Brief 11 February 2014 Tactical Evacuation COL Russ S. Kotwal, MD MPH FAAFP 38 39
Trauma and Injury Subcommittee Frank Butler, MD Defense Health Board 14 June 2011 TACEVAC Discussion MEDEVAC: Red Cross-marked dedicated air ambulance no guns, no armor CASEVAC tactical aircraft - no Red
Crosses but HAVE guns and armor TACEVAC includes both MEDEVAC and CASEVAC 41 Theater TACEVAC Capabilities DUSTOFF Army HH-60 One EMT-B flight medic
PEDRO USAF HH-60G Two PJs (paramedics) Relatively limited in number UK MERT UK Medical Emergency Response Team (MERT) Ch-47 EM or Critical Care physician 2 EMT-Ps and Crit Care Nurse
Routine plasma:PRBCs in flight when needed Advanced airways and RSI Ketamine analgesia Chest tubes and thoracotomies with aortic cross-clamping Tranexamic acid Only one; used for most critical casualties 43
Advanced Capability Evacuation Platforms Apodaca J Trauma 2012 MERT (n = 543) vs PEDRO (n = 326) vs DUSTOFF n = 106) Overall casualty survival rate no differences ISS of 20-29: MERT mortality: 4.8% PEDRO mortality: 16.8%
Advanced Capability Evacuation Platforms Morrison Ann Surg 2013 ISS 1-15 ISS 16-50 No difference in survival MERT mortality: 12.2% PEDRO/DUSTOFF mortality: 18.2% Improving TACEVAC Care Defense Health Board Memo
8 August 2011 Develop a U.S. advanced TACEVAC care capability Flight medical attendants CCFP or higher Routine availability of RBCs and plasma on evacuation platforms Ensure that medical attendants and supervising physicians are both trained and experienced in trauma care Improved TACEVAC care documentation And more Saving Lives on the Battlefield I (2012) and II (2013)
Surveys of prehospital care in Afghanistan Combined Joint Trauma System/USCENTCOM team Directed interviews with hundreds of physicians, PAs, and combat medical personnel in combat units COL Russ Kotwal (I) COL Samual Sauer (II) Findings from the Two CENTCOM/JTS Prehospital
Care Assessments TCCC is not being implemented evenly across the battle space These variations are not just SOF versus conventional forces difference Why is this happening? We teach physicians ATLS (maybe) and then assign them to operational units and expect that they can effectively supervise medics who have been taught battlefield trauma care based on TCCC concepts From a Senior Army
Flight Surgeon During my Medical Corps career I received ZERO training from the AMEDD on pre-hospital care. There was no training about or concerning pre-hospital trauma care within the AMEDD Officer Basic Course, the AMEDD Officer Advanced Course, Command and General Staff College and even, realistically, the C4 course. The C4 course (in my era) started at the Role 1. There was some evacuation planning but no mention of actual hands on care standards. So, it is reasonable to expect that my peers who are now senior leaders got the exact same lack of prehospital care training. I am an "expert" because everything I learned about pre-hospital care was
delivered by USASOC. JTS SOUTHCOM Telecon: 13 Nov 2014 Senior Enlisted SOF Medic TCCC courses used to train units deploying to SOUTHCOM often use an abridged and altered TCCC curriculum rather than the one found on the official TCCC websites. The curriculum found on the official TCCC websites is often being modified at the unit level by physicians with little or no training in prehospital trauma care.
Does This Make a Difference for Our Casualties? YES! The JTS and AFME have an ongoing trauma care Performance Improvement process. The intent is to identify potentially preventable deaths and adverse outcomes There are still preventable deaths and adverse outcomes being noted that could have been avoided by adherence to TCCC Guidelines and JTS Clinical Practice Guidelines. The acceptable number of preventable deaths is:
ZERO. Prehospital 24% of deaths potentially survivable (Eastridge 2012) The Mabry Question: Who Owns Battlefield Medicine? The U.S. military has four armed services, six Geographic Combatant Commands, and the U.S. Special Operations Command, each of which operates autonomously unless directives are issued by the Secretary of Defense (SecDef).
Lacking direction in the form of SecDef policy and Joint Staff doctrine, there is no assurance that lessons learned in trauma care will be used reliably or consistently across the U.S. military. The SENIOR LEADER in the chain of command who steps up on this issue effectively owns battlefield medicine for his or her AOR. The Mabry Question: Who Owns Battlefield Medicine? All 3 SGs have endorsed TCCC training for medics Both the Defense Health Board and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs have recommended TCCC
training for everyone (to include physicians and PAs) assigned to deploying combat units twice. BUT battlefield trauma care in combat units is owned by the unit commanders. Neither the DHB nor ASDHA are in their chain of command. For TCCC to be effectively incorporated into combat units, it must be an integral part of their warrior culture: shoot, move, communicate, AND survive.or care for your wounded buddies (75th RR Model). TCCC in the U.S. Military: Line Commander Directed
U.S. Special Operations Command - 2005 U.S. Army
U.S. Navy U.S. Marine Corps - 2009 U.S. Air Force U.S. Central Command - 2014 U.S. Southern Command U.S. Pacific Command U.S. European Command U.S. Africa Command U.S. Northern Command Commander USSOCOM Directive 22 March 2005 4. USSOCOM COMPONENT COMMANDERS ARE
DIRECTED TO ENSURE THAT THEIR DEPLOYING UNITS RECEIVE TRAINING TO INCLUDE ALL OF THE TCCC GUIDELINES IN REF A WITHIN 6 MONTHS OF DEPLOYING ISO COMBAT OPERATIONS. COMMANDERS ARE ALSO DIRECTED TO ENSURE THAT ALL UNIT COMBATANTS HAVE THE EQUIPMENT IN PARAGRAPHS 5 AND 6 AND BE TRAINED IN ITS USE PRIOR TO DEPLOYMENT. MARADMIN 645/09 DTG: 301713Z Oct 09: TACTICAL CASUALTY COMBAT CARE (TCCC) GUIDELINES AND UPDATES//
5. EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY, THE RECENTLY APPROVED TCCC GUIDELINES WILL BECOME THE STANDARD TO WHICH TRAINING EFFORTS SHOULD BE FOCUSED AND EVALUATION WILL BE BASED. THESE CHANGES WILL AFFECT NUMEROUS TRAINING PROGRAMS AND COURSES. EFFORTS ARE ALREADY UNDERWAY TO UPDATE STANDARDS AND WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE NORMAL STAFFING PROCESS. A KEY ELEMENT OF THE TCCC GUIDELINES IS THEIR APPLICABILITY TO MEDICAL PERSONNEL, COMBAT LIFESAVERS, AND INDIVDUAL DEPLOYING COMBATANTS.
USFOR-A FRAGO 14-067 21 March 2014 All physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, medics, corpsmen, parajumpers (PJs) and nurses in CJOA-A (Afghanistan) will be trained in TCCC Training will be done in accordance with current TCCC Guidelines (found on the Joint Trauma System website) Curriculum to support this training is found on the Military Health System website Training is reportable to the chain of command
Units will field the equipment to perform TCCC Recommendation to Army FORSCOM Surgeon: LTC Bob Mabry 14 Jan 15 FORSCOM Commander Directs All physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and medics, assigned to FORSCOM will be trained in TCCC Training will be done in accordance with current TCCC Guidelines (found on the Joint Trauma System website)
59 CASEVAC in the USMC CDR Bill Padgett CoTCCC Mtg April 2011 CASEVAC requirements and capabilities for the mission at hand are defined and assigned during the planning process. There is not a dedicated CASEVAC capability in the Marine Corps, however the capability is put in place during mission planning by designating personnel and equipment for the requirements identified. The Medical Officer of the Marine Corps does not own medical personnel or equipment, but as a supporting office to the line commanders who own the
personnel and equipment, champions CASEVAC policy, processes and resources as part of the Expeditionary Force Development System which converts operational capability gaps or concepts to fielded capabilities that support Marine Corps strategy. 60 61 62 63
Planning for the NEXT War Not the Last One War on terror will continue Hostage rescue operations likely to increase Increasing emphasis on sea-based operations? USMC elements May be no Army forces involved Who does CASEVAC and what is their training and equipment status?
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