Phương Án Kỳ Thi Quốc Gia

Phương Án Kỳ Thi Quốc Gia

K THUT VIT CU HI TRC NGHIM NHIU LA CHN (Multiple choise questions) THNG TIN V BO CO VIN 1. TS. Th Qunh Mai [email protected] S T: 0915431228 Khoa Ha hc - i hc S phm HN 2. TS. on Cnh Giang [email protected]

S T: 0915.641.667 V GDTrH, B GD-T TP. H Ch Minh, ngy 17 22/12/2016 K THUT VIT CU HI TRC NGHIM NHIU LA CHN TS. SI CNG HNG PH CC TRNG CC KHO TH V KCL GIO DC - B GD & T. TNKQ l phng php kim tra, nh gi bng h thng cu hi trc nghim khch quan.

Cch cho im TNKQ hon ton khng ph thuc vo ngi chm. 5 PHN LOI CC CU HI Trc nghim t lun Trc nghim khch quan

- Hi tng qut gp nhiu - Cung cp p n - Hi tng - Chn p n ng-sai Chn tr li Ghp cu in thm Din gii Tiu lun

Kho lun Lun vn Lun n 6 7 Nhng kiu cu trc nghim nhiu la chn Ni dung so snh

T lun Trc nghim khch quan 1- tin cy Thp hn Cao hn 2- gi tr

Thp hn Cao hn 3- o nng lc nhn thc Nh nhau 4- o nng lc t duy

Nh nhau 5- o K nng, k so Nh nhau 6- o phm cht Tt hn Yu hn

7- o nng lc sng to Tt hn Yu hn 8- Ra D hn Kh hn

Thiu chnh xc v thiu khch quan hn Chnh xc v khch quan hn 9- Chm im 10

11 Cu hi vit theo ng yu cu ca cc thng s k thut trong ma trn chi tit thi ph duyt, ch n cc qui tc nn theo trong qu trnh vit cu hi; Cu hi khng c sai st v ni dung chuyn mn; Cu hi c ni dung ph hp thun phong m tc Vit Nam; khng vi phm v ng li ch trng, quan im chnh tr ca ng CSVN, ca nc Cng ho X hi Ch ngha Vit Nam; Cu hi cha c s dng cho mc ch thi hoc kim tra

nh gi trong bt c trng hp no trc ; Cu hi phi l mi; khng sao chp nguyn dng t sch gio khoa hoc cc ngun ti liu tham kho; khng sao chp t cc ngun cng b bn in hoc bn in t di mi hnh thc; Cu hi cn khai thc ti a vic vn dng cc kin thc gii quyt cc tnh hung thc t trong cuc sng; Cu hi khng c vi phm bn quyn v s hu tr tu; Cc k hiu, thut ng s dng trong cu hi phi thng nht.

Chc nng chnh ca cu dn: t cu hi; a ra yu cu cho HS thc hin; t ra tnh hung/ hay vn cho HS gii quyt. Yu cu c bn khi vit cu dn, phi lm HS bit r/hiu: Cu hi cn phi tr li Yu cu cn thc hin Vn cn gii quyt

Cu nn xc nh r rng ngha mun biu t, t dng trong cu phi r rng, chnh xc, khng c sai st v khng c ln ln. V d: on ht (recitative) l A.mt hnh thc biu hin m nhc. B.phn ni ca mt v opera. C.gii thiu mt tc phm m nhc. D.ng ngha vi libretto. Phn dn ny khng cung cp nh hng hoc tng v nhng g tc gi tiu mc mun bit.

Nn sa thnh: Trong opera, mc ch ca on ht l nhng g? 1. m bo rng cc hng dn trong phn dn l r rng v vic s dng t ng cho php th sinh bit chnh xc h c yu cu lm ci g

nh dng cu hi c hiu qu hn trong vic nhn mnh kin thc t c thay v c hiu. V d: nh dng cu hi Khu vc ven bin ca vng no sau y nc ta chu nh hng nhiu nht ca bo? A. ng bng sng Hng. B. * Bc Trung B. C. ng Nam B. D. ng bng sng Cu Long. - nh dng hon chnh cu:

Dn c nc ta hin nay phn b A.hp l gia cc vng. B. ch yu thnh th. C. * tp trung khu vc ng bng. D. ng u gia cc vng 2. nhn mnh vo kin thc thu c nn trnh by cu dn theo nh dng cu hi thay

v nh dng hon chnh cu 3. Nu phn dn c nh dng hon chnh cu, khng nn to mt ch trng gia hay bt u ca phn cu dn

- Cc nh dng ny gy kh khn cho th sinh khi c. V d: Nhim v thnh lp chnh ph _______________ l mt trong nhng nhim v trong cng lnh chnh tr u tin ca ng Cng Sn Vit Nam (nm 1930). A. nhn dn. B. cng nng. C. *cng nng binh. D. dn ch cng ha. C th sa thnh: Cng lnh chnh tr u tin ca ng Cng

Sn Vit Nam (nm 1930) ra nhim v thnh lp chnh ph A. nhn dn. B. cng nng. C. *cng nng binh. D. dn ch cng ha. 4. Trnh s di dng trong phn dn:

Mt s tiu mc cha cc t, cm t, hoc cu hon ton khng c g lin quan vi trng tm ca tiu mc. Mt l do cho vic ny l lm cho cc tiu mc nhn thc t hn. Dng thc nh vy s thch hp trong trng hp ngi lm bi trc nghim phi la chn, nhn bit s kin chnh trong chui thng tin nhm gii quyt vn . V d: Nhit cao v ma nhiu c trng ca min kh hu m t. Nhng ngi sng trong loi kh hu ny thng phn nn v vic ra nhiu m hi. Ngay c khi c ngy m p dng nh h cung

khng thoi mi. Kh hu c m t l g? A.Sa mc B.* Nhit i C.n i D.Cn xch o Nn sa thnh: Thut ng no di y m t min kh hu vi nhit cao v ma nhiu? A.Sa mc B.* Nhit i

C.n i D.Cn xch o Sau khi kt thc cuc m thoi, thy n tip vin hng hng khng X nhc nh hnh khch B v hnh vi ht thuc l trn my bay, hnh khch A chuyn in thoi sang ch video quay clip. ng lc tip vin trng i qua, ng da s bo cng an nu A khng xa b on clip . Trong trng hp ny, nhng ai vi phm quyn c php lut bo h v tnh mng, sc khe? A. Hnh khch B v n tip vin. B. Hnh khch A v hnh khch B.

C. Hnh khch A, B v n tip vin. D. Hnh khch A, B v tip vin trng. 31 Khi dng cu ph nh c s dng, t ph nh cn phi c nhn mnh hoc nhn mnh bng cch t in m, hoc gch chn, hoc tt c. V d: m thanh khng th truyn trong mi trng no di y? A. *Khong chn khng

B. Tng b tng C. Nc bin D. Tng kh quyn bao quanh tri t 5. Nn trnh by phn dn th khng nh C hai loi phng n la chn Phng n nhiu Chc nng chnh:

L cu tr li hp l (nhng khng chnh xc) i vi cu hi hoc vn c nu ra trong cu dn. Ch hp l i vi nhng HS khng c kin thc hoc khng c ti liu y .

Khng hp l i vi cc HS c kin thc, chu kh hc bi Phng n ng Phng n tt nht Chc nng chnh: Th hin s hiu bit ca HS v s la chn chnh xc hoc tt nht cho cu hi hay vn m cu

hi yu cu. V d 1: Nung nng hn hp gm 9,45 gam Al v 27,84 gam Fe3O4 vi hiu sut phn ng l 80%. Cho thm V lt dung dch NaOH 0,5 M vo hn hp sn phm sau phn ng. Lng dung dch NaOH dng d 20% so vi lng cn thit. Gi tr ca V l: A. *0,84 B. 0,6144 C. 0,875 D. 0,64 Phn tch: Phng n ng l A. Phng n B: HS khng n Al d nNaOH cn = 0,256 mol, nNaOH cn = 0,256 mol,

VD: NaOH cn = 0,256 0,5 = 0,512 lt nNaOH cn = 0,256 mol, Vdd NaOH ly = 0,512.1,2 = 0,6144 lt Phng n C: HS khng hiu r bn cht ca khi nim dng d 20%. HS nhm tng dng d 20% tc l hao ht 20% so vi lng cn thit (lng d dng b p cho phn hao ht) v p t cng thc tnh ging nh khi nim trn (ly kt qu t p n): Vdd NaOH ly = 0,7.100 80 = 0,875 lt. Phng n D: Tng t nh phng n C (ly kt qu t phng n B): Vd: NaOH ly = 0,512.100 80 = 0,64 lt 34 V d 2:

Phn tch: Phng n ng l D. Phng n A: HS nhm vi php cng, tr cc s thng thng Phng n B: nhm vi php cng, tr cc s thng thng v nhm ln gia k hiu di vec t vi du gi tr tuyt i Phng n C: HS nhm tng hai vec t vi tng di ca hai on thng 35 Vit Nam gia nhp t chc ASEAN vo nm no?

A.1975. B.1979. C.*1995. D. 1986. Phn tch: - Phng n A: Thng nht t nc - Phng n B: Chin tranh bin gii Vit Trung. - Phng n D: i hi i biu ton quc ln th VI

CS VN 36 1. Phi chc chn c v ch c mt phng n ng hoc ng nht i vi cu chn 1 phng n ng/ng nht V d: Hc sinh 16 tui c php li loi xe c dung tch xi lanh bng bao nhiu? A. T 40 di 50 cm3 B. Di 50 cm3

C. 90 cm3 D. Trn 90cm3 p n ng l B. Tuy nhin, phng n A trong trng hp ny cung ng. 2. Nn sp xp cc phng n theo mt th t no Cu tr li nn c sp xp tng dn hoc gim dn theo th t bng ch ci, ln... V d: Tm nghim ca phng trnh 3x 1 = 27 A. x = 3.

B. x = 4. C. x = 9. D. x = 10. Cho dy cc cht: Ag, Fe3O4, Na2CO3 v Fe(OH)3. S cht trong dy tc dng c vi dung dch H2SO4 long l A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D. 4. 3. Cn cn nhc khi s dng nhng phng n c hnh thc hay ngha tri ngc nhau hoc ph nh nhau

Khi ch c hai cu tr li c ngha tri ngc nhau trong cc phng n la chn th hc sinh c xu hng d on 1 trong 2 phng n l phng n ng v tp trung v 2 phng n . khc phc, nn xy dng cc cp phng n c ngha tri ngc nhau i mt. V d: V mt di truyn, lai ci

tin ging A. ban u lm tng t l th ng hp, sau tng dn t l d hp. B. lm tng c th d hp v th ng hp C. ban u lm tng t l d hp, sau lm tng th ng hp. D. lm gim c th d hp v th ng hp. Hc sinh s c khuynh hng s la chn cu khng ging nh nhng la chn khc. Tt nhin, nu nh mt trong cc la chn ng nht l ng, cu trc nghim c th l mt cu mo, c tnh nh

la. 4. Cc phng n la chn phi ng nht theo ni dung, ngha V d: Trng hp no lm cho salsa nng nht? A.Thm t vo B. Thm t xanh vo C. Thm hnh v t xanh vo D.* Thm t jalapeno vo

Ba la chn A, B, C l ging nhau v la chn D khc vi nhng ci kia. 5. Cc phng n la chn nn ng nht v mt hnh thc ( di, t ng,) Khng nn cc cu tr li ng c nhng khuynh hng ngn hn hoc di hn cc phng

n khc. Tnh ng nht c th da trn cn bn ngha, m thanh, di, loi t. Phn tch hot ng c quan t ny l lnh o A. iu chnh nng sut lao ng B. xc nh ch khen thng C. thay i c ch qun l D. nm vng thc trng, xc nh mc tiu cho hng pht trin c

quan trong tng lai Phng n D qu di, c th sa li l xc nh hng pht trin c quan 6. Trnh lp li mt t ng/thut ng nhiu ln trong cu hi Cu gc Tc ng mch vnh bn phi gn ngun gc ca n bi mt huyt khi s rt c th l kt qu ca A.nhi mu ca vng b bn ca tm tht phi v tm nh phi.

B.nhi mu ca tm tht tri bn. C.nhi mu ca tm tht tri trc. D.nhi mu vch ngn pha trc. Cu sa Tc ng mch vnh bn phi gn ngun gc ca n bi mt huyt khi c th do hin tng nhi mu khu vc no sau y? A.B bn ca hai tm tht B.Bn tri tm tht. C.Trc tm tht tri.

D.Vch ngn pha trc. 7. Vit cc phng n nhiu th khng nh - Ging nh phn dn, cc phng n nhiu phi c vit th khng nh, c ngha l, cn trnh cc ph nh dng KHNG v TR. - Thnh thong, cc t ny khng th trnh c trong ni dung ca mt cu trc nghim. Trong cc trng hp ny, cc t ny cn phi c nh du nh lm m, vit in,

hay gch di. Khi cht lng ang si, nu tip tc un th nhit cht lng s A.tip tc tng B.khng thay i C.gim D.khng tng cung khng gim 8. Trnh s dng cm t tt c nhng phng n trn, khng c phng n no

Nu nh th sinh c thng tin mt phn (bit rng 2 hoc 3 la chn cho l ng/sai), thng tin c th gi th sinh vic chn la phng n tt c nhng phng n trn hoc Khng c phng n no Chn khng nh sai trong cc khng nh sau:

A.1 + 1 = 3 B.3 2 = 0 C.a v b u sai D.Tt c u sai 9. Trnh cc thut ng m h, khng c xc nh c th v mc nh thng thng, phn ln, hu

ht,... hoc cc t hn nh c th nh lun lun, khng bao gi, tuyt i Cc t hn nh c th thng mc qu mc v do chng t khi no lm nn cu tr li ng V d: L do ch yu gy nn tnh km tin cy ca mt bi trc nghim trong lp hc?

A. Hon ton thiu cc hng dn c hiu qu. B. Ton b cc cu hi thiu hiu qu. C.* C qu t cc cu trc nghim. D. Dng thc ca tt c cc cu hi cn mi l vi hc sinh 10. Cu tr li ng phi c thit lp cc v tr khc nhau vi t l t 10-25% Nn chia gn u s ln xut hin cho cc phng n A, B, C, D. Khng nn cho phng n ng xut hin cng 1 v tr lin tc nhiu cu cnh nhau

1. Phng n nhiu khng nn sai mt cch qu l liu; V d: H Tin thuc tnh no? A. An Giang B. Hu Giang C. * Kin Giang D. H Giang Th sinh s d dng loi c tnh H Giang. 2. Trnh dng cc cm t k thut c khuynh hng hp dn th sinh thiu kin thc v ang tm cu tr li c tnh thuyt phc on m;

Mi phng n nhiu c th c vit bng mt ngn ng n gin, nhng chng c v nh sai r rng hn. V d: Khi thit k bi trc nghim, vic g phi lun lun c lm trc? A. Xc nh kch c ca d liu v xc nh i tng chn mu B. m bo rng phm vi v cc c im k thut c da vo l thuyt. C.* nh r vic s dng cch chm im hoc vic gii thch. D. La chn m hnh phn hi theo s lng cc tham s mong mun. 3. Trnh s dng cc cm t cha ng (sai ng php, kin thc):

Hy vit cc phng n nhiu l cc pht biu ng, nhng khng tr li cho cu hi. V d: iu g ni chung l ng v mi quan h gia cht lng v tin cy ca cu trc nghim? A. Khng th c c tnh gi tr m thiu tin cy. B. * Cc cu trc nghim km c khuynh hng lm tng li o lng. C. Vic th hin cu trc nghim c th c th hin trong vic dy km. D. Mt phm vi hn ch ca cc im trc nghim c th lm gim tin cy c lng.

4. Lu n cc im lin h v vn phm ca phng n nhiu c th gip hc sinh nhn bit cu tr li V d: Nh nng lun canh A. gin vic theo thi v B. d dng ngh ngi C. bo tr t ai D. cn bng ch dinh dng Phng n "B c th b loi b ngay v khng cng dng ng php. Cho cc pht biu sau:

(a) Cc oxit ca kim loi kim th phn ng vi CO to thnh kim loi. (b) Cc kim loi Ca, Fe, Al v Na ch iu ch c bng phng php in phn nng chy. (c) Cc kim loi Mg, K v Fe u kh c ion Ag+ trong dung dch thnh Ag. (d) Cho Mg vo dung dch FeCl3 d, khng thu c Fe. S pht biu ng l A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D. 4.

51 Sp xp cc s kin di y theo trnh t thi gian. (1) Mt trn Vit Minh c thnh lp. (2) S ra i ca Khu gii phng Vit Bc. (3) Hi ngh Qun s cch mng Bc K c triu tp. A. (1), (3), (2). B. (3), (1), (2). C. (2), (3), (1). D. (1), (2), (3). Cho cc nhm tc nhn ha hc sau:

(1) Ion kim loi nng nh Hg2+, Pb2+. (2) Cc anion NO3-, PO43-, SO42- nng cao. (3) Thuc bo v thc vt. (4) CFC (kh thot ra t mt s thit b lm lnh). Nhng nhm tc nhn u gy nhim ngun nc l: A. (1), (2), (3). B. (1), (2), (4). C. (1), (3), (4). D. (2), (3), (4). 52

Ch yu cu th sinh s dng nhng thao tc t duy n gin nh tnh ton s hc, ghi nh, p dng trc tip cc cng thc, khi nim Li gii ch bao gm 1 bc tnh ton, lp lun. Mi quan h gia gi thit v kt lun l trc tip Cu hi cp ti cc ni dung kin thc s cp, trc quan, khng phc tp, tru tng.

Yu cu th sinh s dng nhng thao tc t duy tng i n gin nh phn tch, tng hp, p dng mt s cng thc, khi nim c bn Li gii bao gm t 1 ti 2 bc tnh ton, lp lun Gi thit v kt lun c mi quan h tng i trc tip Cu hi cp ti cc ni dung kin thc tng i c bn, khng qu phc tp, tru tng

Yu cu th sinh s dng cc thao tc t duy cao nh phn tch, tng hp, nh gi, sng to Gi thit v kt lun khng c mi quan h trc tip Li gii bao gm t 2 bc tr ln Cu hi cp ti cc ni dung kin thc kh su sc, tru tng

58 Cp M t Nhn bit Hc sinh nh cc khi nim c bn, c th nu ln hoc nhn ra chng khi c yu cu

Cp M t Thng hiu Hc sinh hiu cc khi nim c bn v c th vn dng chng, khi chng c th hin theo cch tng t nh cch gio vin ging hoc nh cc v d tiu biu v chng

trn lp hc. Cp M t Hc sinh c th hiu c khi nim mt Vn cp cao hn thng hiu, to ra c s dng lin kt logic gia cc khi nim c bn v c ( cp th vn dng chng t chc li cc thng thp) tin c trnh by ging vi bi ging ca gio vin hoc trong sch gio khoa.

Cp M t Hc sinh c th s dng cc kin thc v mn hc - ch gii quyt cc vn mi, Vn khng ging vi nhng iu c hc, dng hoc trnh by trong sch gio khoa, nhng mc ph hp nhim v, vi k nng v ( cp kin thc c ging dy ph hp vi mc cao) nhn thc ny. y l nhng vn , nhim v

ging vi cc tnh hung m Hc sinh s gp phi ngoi x hi. 63 - Trng s ca mt kim tra l t l phn trm thi gian dy l thuyt v thi gian vn dng trong cc ch c quy nh theo khung phn phi chng trnh ca mn hc. Trng s ca mi ch trong kim tra cn cn c vo mc tiu cn t ca cc ch trong chng trnh gio dc ph thng, tm quan trng ca chun kin thc,

k nng ca n c qui nh trong chng trnh ging dy. - H s trnh (h): c qui nh ty theo i tng v trnh ca HS. Gi tr ca h c qui c 0 < h < 1,0 - Ch s LT (L thuyt: cp 1,2) = S tit LT x h - Ch s VD (Vn dng: cp 3,4) = Tng s tit gi tr LT tng ng 64

- Trng s LT, trng s VD: c tnh bng cch ly gi tr tng ng ca ch s nhn vi 100 chia cho tng s tit ca ma trn. Tng tt c cc trng s ca ca mt kim tra lun bng 100. - S cu hi ca LT v VD: c tnh theo trng s v c lm trn. Ly trng s tng ng chia cho tch (10 x s im 1 cu). Nu l th phi ly gn ng, s cu l nguyn. - im s ca bi kim tra: c chia u cho cc cu

hi. Cn c vo s cu hi ta xc nh c im LT v im VD ca mi ch v ton ma trn. 65 66 67 68

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