Physical Security Least sexy of the 10 domains but the best firewall in the world will not stand up to a well placed brick. Physical Security Addresses threats, vulnerabilities, countermeasures to physically protect orgs resources & sensitive info Natural disasters Unauthorized entry and/or theft Threats
Risk analysis or business impact assessment identify threats Seven major sources of physical loss 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Temperature Gases Liquids Organisms Projectiles Movement Energy Anomalies
Planning done in early stages of construction of data facility Choosing a Secure Site Designing a Secure Site Choosing a Secure Site Visibility: neighbors, external markings Local Considerations: near possible threats, local crime rate
Natural Disasters: weather related, earthquake fault Transportation: excessive air, highway or road traffic Joint Tenancy: HVAC controls, elecriticity External Services: local emergency, hospitals Designing a secure site
Walls: fire ratings rooms & storage Ceilings: weight-bearing, fire rating Floors: weight bearing, static, electrical cables Windows: none or translucent & shatterproof Doors: resist forcible entry, fire rating, personnel safety is first Sprinkler systems: fire resistant rating of not less than 1 hour Liquid or gas lines: positive (outward) flow Air Conditioning: dedicated power circuits, positive air flow Electrical Requirements: dedicated circuits, alternative Facility Security Management Audit Trails
Detecting security violations Performance Problems Design & programming flaws Include: date & time, successful or not, Where access granted, Who tried, data modified? Detective rather than preventative Emergency Procedures Include: emergency shutdown procedures, Evacuation, Employee training, periodic tests
Administrative Personnel Controls Human resources department Pre-employment screening Ongoing employee checks Post-employment procedures Environmental & Life Safety Controls
Physical controls necessary to sustain either computers operating environment (OE) or personnels OE Main Areas: Electrical Power Fire detection & suppression Heating, Ventilation, & Air Conditioning (HVAC) Electrical Power Noise
Brownouts & Sag (NYC 15% common) Radio frequency interference, EMI Cell phones, laptops, other ele. Equip. EMI eavesdropping Power line conditioning, proper shielding, grounding, magnets, fluorescent lights, electric motors, space heaters Surges & spikes when come back up Humidity
Low == static (20,000 volts possible) Fire Detection & Suppression Fire classes, combustibles, detectors, & suppression methods Factors in priority order: 1. 2. 3. 4. Life safety aspects Fire threat of installation to occupants & property
Economic loss from computing function Economic loss from loss of equipment Fire Classes & Combustibles Classes B. Common combustibles water or soda acid Liquid CO2, soda acid, or halon C. Electrical CO2 or halon A.
Fire requires: oxygen, heat, & fuel Water: temperature, soda acid: fuel supply, CO2 oxygen, halon: chemical reaction Fire Detectors Heat sensing Flame-actuated
Infrared or pulsation of flame Smoke-actuated Predetermined temp or fast change In ventilation systems Automatic dialup fire alarm Fire Extinguishing Systems Water Sprinkler
Wet Pipe, Dry Pipe, Deluge, or Preaction (combination of wet & dry pipe) Gas Discharge Pressurized inert gas CO2 , halon, argon, argonite, inergen After the fire Contamination
Smoke: little damage at first, residue Heat Water Suppression medium Water damage Shutoff power Move equipment Drain Wipe parts & spray
Physical & Technical Controls Facility Control Requirements Facility Access Control Devices Intrusion Detection & Alarms Computer Inventory Control Media Storage Requirements Facility Control Requirements
Guards Dogs Fencing Mantrap Lighting Locks Closed Circuit TV Facility Access Control Devices Security Access Cards
Wireless Proximity Readers Dumb: photo id Smart: digital coded smart card Smarter: processor on card Passive, field powered, transponders Biometric Intrusion Detection & Alarms Perimeter Intrusion Detectors
Motion Detectors Photoelectric & dry contact switches Wave pattern (reflection), capacitance (electrical field), audio detectors Alarm Systems Local, central station, proprietary Line supervision Computer Inventory Control Physical PC Control
Cable locks Port controls Switch Controls Peripheral Switch Controls Electronic Security Boards Laptops Media Storage Requirements Ongoing Storage
Disposal Access & Environment Clearing overwriting (7 times min), Purging Degaussing or overwriting, Destruction Erasing only changes FAT, Damaged sectors not changed, overwrite may not change cause new file shorter, Encryption of sensitive data
Simplest Way to check physical Security walk-about
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