Physical versus Chemical Properties The study of matter Reviewing MATTER Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space Mass the amount of matter in something Volume the amount of space something occupies
Which of the following is matter? A car? A box? You? What is a property? Property: a characteristic of a substance that can be observed Physical and chemical properties may be
intensive or extensive. Intensive properties are properties that do not depend on the size of the sample of matter and can be used to identify substances. Extensive properties are properties of matter that depend on the quantity of the sample. Physical Property
Physical property: a property that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance. Examples: luster melting point malleability: the ability to be hammered into a thin sheet
boiling point ductility: the ability to be stretched into a wire solubility density specific heat Special Physical Properties
Melting point: the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid at a given pressure water = 0oC Boiling point: the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas at a given pressure water = 100oC Chemical Properties Chemical property: a property that
can only be observed by changing the identity of the substance Examples: flammability ability to rust reactivity with vinegar Density Density is the amount of mass per unit of volume. Density can be used to identify a substance.
The density of water is 1.0g/mL Density Calculations Calculations: D = m/V = g/mL = g/cm3 Ex: A cube has a mass of 2.8 g and occupies a volume of 3.67 ml. Would this object float or sink in water? Mass = 2.8 g Volume = 3.67 mL D = 2.8g/3.67 mL= 0.76 g/mL
This object would float in water because its density is less than water (1.0 g/mL). More Density Calculations Ex: A liquid has a mass of 25.6 g and a volume of 31.6 mL. Use the table below to identify the substance. Substance Density (g/ mL)
D = 25.6 g/31.6 mL Mercury 13.6 D= 0.81 g/mL Water 1.00
Ethanol 0.81 M=25.6 g V=31.6 mL The substance is ethanol. ODOR
Can be observed or measured without changing it. COLOR This property can only be observed during a chemical reaction. STATE Does not form a new substance
FLAMMABILITY MASS One or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties. REACTIVITY Describes matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties
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