Physiology and Medical Aspects

Physiology and Medical Aspects

Dive Physiology And Medical Aspects Underwater Physiology Respiration Effects of heat and cold Barotrauma Pressure related problems Direct Indirect Respiration The breathing cycle Oxygen consumption Carbon dioxide Breath holding Hypoxia hypercapnia/hypocapnia Carbon monoxide poisoning Respiration Respiration

The Process Movement of air into and out of the lungs Transport of oxygen to the cells and removal of carbon dioxide Aorta Mouth, Nose, Throat Pulmonary Artery O2 CO2 Lungs Bronchioles Trachea CO2

O2 Pulmonary Vein Bronchi Alveoli Lungs Capillaries Heart Vena Cava Diaphragm Air Must Pass Through Dead Spaces Hemoglobin Molecules in Red Blood Cells Carry Oxygen

Approx. 5% Oxygen Consumed Carbon Dioxide Increases 5% Shallow Water Blackout Caused by Excessive Hyperventilation Skip Breathing Causes Hypercapnia Air with Less Than 10% O2 at 1atma Will Not Support Consciousness Effects of Heat and Cold Heat injuries (hyperthermia) cramps exhaustion stroke Cold injuries (hypothermia) Decreased body functions Decreased mental functions Shivering, numbness Related protection requirements

Temperature Injuries Temperature Injuries Progressive Symptoms and Effects Ai d - Hypothermia Cool Victim Oral Fluids No Caffeine/Alcohol Ai d Uncontrolled Shivering Loss of Coord/Dexterity Numbness 1s

t Profuse Sweating Weakness Malaise Dry, Flushed Skin 1s t Sy mp to ms - Cramps - Exhaustion - Stroke Cold Sy mp

tom s Heat Warm Victim No Caffeine No Alcohol Pressure Related Problems (direct) Descent (squeezes) Ears Sinuses Mask Thoracic

Teeth Stomach/Intestines Suit Ascent (expansion) Air embolism Pneumothorax Mediastinal Emphysema Subcutaneous Emphysema Pressure Related Problems (indirect) Decompression sickness Nitrogen partial pressures Solubility Nitrogen narcosis Oxygen toxicity Nitrogen narcosis Nitrogen Narcosis

Rapture of the Deep - Martinis Law SURFACE Thinking and Judgment POTENTIALLY Affected 75-100 Communication, Motor and Mental Tasks IMPAIRED Symptoms and Effects on Individual Diver Vary With Depth and Exposure. 150-175 NOT IN CONTROL 200+ Barotrauma Direct Pressure Related Problems

Indirect Pressure Related Problems - Descent (Compression) Squeezes - Decompression Sickness (The Bends) (DCS) Ear, Sinus, Lung, Stomach, Intestinal, Tooth, Equipment - Nitrogen Narcosis Descend and Ascend Slowly to Minimize Potential Problems - Oxygen Toxicity - Ascent (Expansion) Lung Ruptures Subcutaneous and

Mediastinal Emphysema Pneumothorax Air Embolism NEVER HOLD YOUR BREATH ON SCUBA! Precautionary Decompression Stops (Safety Stops) Help Reduce Bubble Formation and Incidence of DCS Physiology Summary Physiology Summary Respiration is Mechanical - Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Exchange - Slow Deep Breathing Proper Exposure Protection is Required to Avoid Hypothermia

Barotrauma - Pressure Injury - Direct Subcutaneous Emphysema Mediastinal Emphysema Pneumothorax Air Embolism - Indirect DCS (the Bends) Nitrogen Narcosis Oxygen Toxicity

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