Languages in contact Socio-spatial diversity: Language varieties Vernacular, Standard, Lingua Franca, Pidgin, Creole Vernacular Three defining characteristics: Lack of codification and elaboration A language learned at home Functionally restricted Standard
A Standard can be defined as the variety that has undergone some linguistic processing so that there is a set of widely accepted rules for it (eg for spelling) and that it can serve both official and everyday functions of a state Formal Standard A formal standard applies to the written language and to spoken situations that are the most formal. Its rules are set by authorities
(language academies, editors, dictionaries, etc) Informal Standard Applies to spoken language in everyday use. It is determined by speakers who make judgments as to whether a form is acceptable or not. It is characterized by multiple norms of acceptability, and defined by the absence of socially stigmatized forms.
A continuum of standardness V IS FS How does a standard emerge? Sometimes a standard variety develops out of a local vernacular that has attained political, socioeconomic or cultural superiority over other vernaculars (English, French, Spanish)
Sometimes a standard is created artificially with some political or social objective in mind (Katharevusa in Greece, Nynorsk in Norway) Countries with a colonial past may use the variety of the previous hegemony as a standard, alongside a standardized local code How good is a standard? Linguistically, standards are not any better than vernaculars, which is proven by the fact that any vernacular can become a standard Socially, standards have more prestige, but that is an artificial not a natural differentiation
Standards do have a positive impact as they enhance cross-regional communication, promote literacy etc. When the prestige of a standard, however, is influenced by racial, religious or class biases the results can be catastrophic Lingua Franca Any variety that serves as the tool of communication for people who speak varieties which are not mutually intelligible
Examples of lingua francas Swahili in many African nations like Tanzania and Zaire Russian in the former USSR English in several tourist destinations, and in the scientific community Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea Bilingualism Individual bilingualism two native languages in the mind Fishman: a psycholinguistic phenomenon
Societal bilingualism A society in which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are bilingual Fishman: a sociolinguistic phenomenon Stable bilingualism persistent bilingualism in a society over several generations Language evolution: Language shift Diglossia BENEFITS OF BILINGUALISM (California Department of Education, Language Policy and Leadership Office)
Enhanced academic and linguistic competence in two languages Development of skills in collaboration & cooperation Appreciation of other cultures and languages Cognitive advantages Increased job opportunities Expanded travel experiences Lower high school drop out rates Higher interest in attending colleges and universities Diglossia Fergusons definition (1959): the side-by-side existence of
historically & structurally related language varieties the Low variety takes over the outdated High variety Fishmans reformulation (1967): a diglossic situation can occur anywhere where two language varieties (even unrelated ones) are used in functionally distinct ways the Low variety loses ground to the superposed High variety problematic as it creates an opposite situation to widespread bilingualism Fishmans reformulation + diglossia - diglossia
+ bilingualis m Everyone in a community knows both H and L, which are functionally differentiated An unstable, transitional situation in which everyone in a community knows both
H and L, but are shifting to H bilingualis m Speakers of H rule over speakers of L A completely egalitarian speech community , where there is no language variation
Diglossic situation Four examples: Diglossic situation: functions of H vs. L Ferguson, Charles. 1972. Diglossia. In: Pier Paolo Giglioli (ed.). Language and Social Context. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 232-251. In: Ralph Fasold. 1985. The Sociolinguistics of Society. Oxford: Blackwell, 35. Example of L moving towards H & becoming national language: LANGUAGES IN INDONESIA: 300 languages and dialects are spoken in Indonesia, but Bahasa Indonesia is the official and most widely spoken tongue. Its common use has helped unify the 200 million citizens since Indonesias independence
in 1949. Bahasa Indonesia is based on Malay, long the market language of coastal towns, and it contains elements of Chinese, Indian, Dutch, and English. Today, television programs, major newspapers, schools, and universities all use Bahasa Indonesia. Do you speak English? Bisa bicara Bahasa Inggris? Language choice code switching changing from one language to an other situational switching
metaphorical switching code-mixing speaking in one language but using pieces from another style shifting standard English vs. afro-american vernacular language borrowing Example of code-switching in the Amazon
Tariana is spoken by about 100 people in the northwest Amazonia (Brazil). Other languages in the area is e.g. Tucano (almost a lingua franca), Baniwa and Arawak (the two latter related to Tariana). The area is known for its language group exogamy and institutionlized multilingualism. Language choice is motivated by power relationship and by status, and there are strict rules for code- switching. Code-mixing with Tucano is considered a language violation; using elements of Baniwa is funny while mixing different Tariana
dialects implies that one cannot speak Tariana properly. Overusing Portuguese is associated with an Indian who is trying to be better than his peers. Aikhenvald (2003) Language in Society 32:1-21 Sociolinguistic classification Ferguson (1966) distinguished between five language types based on prestige (p) and vitality (v): Vernacular unstandardized native language of speech community (-p, +v)
Standard native language of a speech community codified in dictionaries and grammars (+p, +v) Classical language codified in dictionaries and grammars which is no longer spoken (+p, -v) Pidgin hybrid language with lexicon from one language and grammar
from another language (-p, -v) Creole language acquired by children of speakers of pidgin, or subsequently by speaker or Creole (-p, v) Outcomes of Language Contact Language Death: no native speakers Language Shift: One language replaces another Language Maintenance: A relatively stable bi-/ multilingual society Pidgin: a rudimentary system of communication
Creole: creation of a new language based on pidgins or languages in contact Lingua Franca Global Languages Endangered Languages Prediction: half of the approximately 6,000 languages may become extinct within 100 years. 90 Alaskan indigenous 2 being acquired by children. 90 Australia Aboriginal 20 being used by all age groups. 175 Native American
20 being acquired by children. Pidgins & Creoles Around the World PIDGINS & CREOLES PIDGINS PIDGIN arises in a (new) contact situation involving more than two linguistic groups groups have no shared language
groups need to communicate regularly, but for limited purposes, such as trade is nobody's native language vocabulary (typically) from one of the Langua-ges (= Lexifier Language) grammar is a kind of crosslanguage compromi-se with influence from universals of L2 learning no elaborate morphological structures Lifecycles of Pidgins Jargon Phase: contains great individual variation Stable Pidgin: contains both simple and
complex sentences Expanded Pidgin: complex grammar, and has a developed word formation component Features of a Stable Pidgin Lack of surface grammatical complexity Lack of morphological complexity Semantic transparency Vocabulary reduction CREOLES
Creole arises in a (new) contact situation involving more than two linguistic groups is the native language of a speech community vocabulary (typically) from one of the Languages (= Lexifier Language) grammar is a kind of crosslanguage compromise with influence from universals of L2 learning some creoles are nativized pidgins 1. The Slave Trade
The forcible exile of over 12 million Africans to work the plantations of European colonists. Two Locations Fort Creole: developed at fortified posts along the west African coast, where European forces held slaves until the arrival of the next ship. Guinea Coast Creole English Plantation Creole: developed on plantations in the New World colonies under the dominance of different European languages. Jamaican Creole Jamaica
English Negerhollands Virgin Islands Dutch Haitian Creole Haiti French Papiamento Netherlands Antilles Spanish Angolar Sno Tom Portuguese 2. Trade
Naga Pidgin Contemporary pidgin spoken by peoples in mountain regions of north-east India. Acts as lingua franca (29 languages) Originated as a market language in Assam in the 19th century among the Naga people Undergoing creolization among small groups like the Kacharis in the town of Dimapur, and among the children of interethnic marriages. 3. European settlement movement of European settlers to places where the indigenous population had not been
decimated or moved into reservations a slave population did not form the labor force Fanakalo spoken in parts of South Africa vocabulary from Zulu, and some from English & Afrikaans) stable pidgin, shows no signs of creolizing 4. War Korean Bamboo English American wars in Asia (Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand) marginal, unstable pidgin
5. Labor Migration within colonized countries, people from different ethnic groups may be drawn into a common work sphere without being forced Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea (Pacific Islands) An example of English Based Pidgins Hawaiian Pidgin English
Hawaiian Pidgin English The Foundations Hawaiian Pidgins were necessitated by the contact between American merchants returning from China. At Hawaiian ports, some Chinese crew members stayed behind. The Hawaiian natives and the Chinese sailors couldnt understand one another, thus the creation of a trade language was necessary. The new language was a mixture of both, and aided in the communication between two linguistically divided people. The language created has morphed into the unique Hawaiian Pidgin that it is today. The Hawaiian Pidgin English is English based, but consists of 7
diverse languages. Hawaiian Pidgin English (see http://www.une.edu.au/langnet/hce.htm) Todays Usage Hawaiian Pidgins are spoken by many people who live in Hawaii, but mostly by teenagers. Most people raised in Hawaii, regardless of race or social class can understand
this Pidgin to an extent. With words from other languages making up the Pidgin, some believe it sounds like improper English. 'OL KING KAM 'Ol King Kam He one funny 'ol man One funny 'ol man he waz He like fo kau kau At his bruddah's luau
An kanikapila awl night Wit his kuz Romance Based Pidgin Lingua Franca A trade language used around the Mediterranean The only remnants of the language are found in the nursery rhymes of children in Jerusalem. used as a counting-out rhyme Characteristics: Have had a limited vocabulary
Have a sharply circumscribed grammar Lack verb tenses and case endings Motu Based Pidgin The Foundations Hiri Motu is a language of Papua New Guinea. Piginization of Motu: Influenced by English, Tok Pisin, and Polynesian languages. 90% lexical similarity with Motu
Word order tends to be OSV while most pidgins are SVO Motu Based Pidgin: Example of Hiri Motu Text: Sapos yu kaikai planti pinat, bai yu kamap strong olsem phantom. Fantom, yu pren tru bilong mi. Inap yu ken helpim mi nau? Fantom, em i go we? Translation:
If you eat plenty of peanuts, you will come up strong like the phantom. Phantom, you are a true friend of mine. Are you able to help me now? Where did he go? (famous comic strip in Papua New Guinea) Whats the difference? Pidgins Creoles Is NOT a mother IS a mother
tongue tongue Form of Larger vocabulary communication Greater linguistic between two range, capable of mutually being spoken unintelligible quicker Difference:
Pidgins have no native speakers, while Creole languages PIDGINS & CREOLES are all alike and characterized by: a lack of morphology ? a lack of 'exotic' sounds ? a lack of complex C-cluster ? SVO word order ? in Creoles only: particles indicating tense, mood, and
Language Characteristics: Lexicon About 60% of the lexicon comes from Spanish and Portuguese (noted as Ib.) Ex: No lubida! Mi ta sinti bo falta About 25% comes from Dutch (noted as Du.) Ex: (Masha) danki, Hende (Hmber/Muhe)
The remaining 15% comes from West African languages, Arawakan languages, and others Often in creoles, the superstratum language supplies the lexicon, where the substratum supplies the structure (and such lexical items as toponyms) Language Characteristics: Phonology Some examples: Emphatic nasalization of vowels before  Lack of word-final voiced obstruents
Use of tone to distinguish identical words Allowance of CC coda clusters, complex onset clusters Phonemic inventory similar to that of a typical Romance language, with obvious Germanic influences Ex: [n (with allophones ) h x e o y ] Language Characteristics: Grammar Language Bioprogramme Hypothesis General creole characteristics:
No case system (accusative case as a catch-all) mi (from Sp. mi or Port. mim), bo (from Port vos): mi ta invit bo (I am inviting you) Lack of verb conjugation Mi bai, bo bai, e bai, nos bai, boso bai, nan bai Tense, aspect, and mode specified with separate words, rather than coded into words Mi ta skirbi, Mi ta skirbiendo, Mi a skirbi, Mi tabata skirbiendo, Mi lo skirbi Word order generally Subject-Verb-Object
History: A Brief Overview Earliest inhabitants of the islands were the Caiquetio Indians who had come over from northern coast of present-day Venezuela and spoke a language of the Arawak family 1499: Spaniards discover the islands, dub them las islas intiles 1527: Spain colonizes the islands Indians either die from exposure to new diseases, are hunted down for cannibalism under decree from the church, or are shipped to Hispaniola as workers However, Indians die too quickly to be effective
workers, giving rise to the need for African slaves History: A Brief Overview Because of the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), the Spanish could not explore in Africa, so they had to get slaves through the Portuguese intermediaries The islands functioned as a way-station when ships would stop, but were generally left sparsely populated (except for the notable population of Portuguesespeaking Sephardic Jews) and scantily defended After the founding of the West Indies Company (1621), the Dutch were dedicated to establishing themselves militarily and commercially in the New World. They landed on Curaao in 1634, and the
other two islands within two years, ending Spanish domination there. History: A Brief Overview With the Dutch as such a long-lasting influence over the islands (all are still possessions of the Netherlands), one might expect Papiamentu to have developed into a Dutch-based creole, rather than Iberian with a certain amount of Dutch influence. However, the Dutch were never interested in the linguistic aspect of domination and slavery, and Spanish remained a lingua franca of the area. Also, the Catholic church took
pains to reach out to the local population in their own language, Papiamentu, helping to solidify it in the state they found it: predominantly Iberianbased. History: A Dispute There continues to be a good deal of argument as to whether Papiamentu is a Spanish-based creole with some Portuguese influence or a Portuguesebased creole relexified by Spanish. This argument calls into question when Papiamentu was formed. If it is a Portuguese creole, it would have had to have been formed by the African slaves still in Africa or in transit to the New World. Papiamentu does show similarites to Cape Verdean Creole, lending support to
this hypothesis. During the entirety of the slave trade, Cape Verde saw approximately 100,000 slaves pass through its ports. History: A Dispute If it is a Spanish creole, it would have had to have been formed on the islands themselves through direct contact with the Spaniards, of which there was little, since they were frequently absentee landlords. However, there was constant contact with Spanish missionaries and Spanish-speaking settlements on the northern coast of South
America. Current Status of Papiamentu As it now stands, Papiamentu is in no danger of extinction. It is used in all domains, public and private. It is taught in primary schools, but Spanish, a more prestigious language, and Dutch, the official language, are used for later education. Although Papiamentu does not have a social stigma attached to it, most people on the islands are multilingual for commercial purposes. It is used in TV (including news broadcasting), radio, newspapers, and books, having a long literary tradition.
Orthography in use is a point of contention between Aruba and the other two islands, as Aruba uses a more etymological orthography, whereas Curaao and Bonaire use one more phonemic. Tok Pisin Tok Pisin Papua New Guinea Independence 1975
Melanesian Pidgin Tok Pisin Papua New Guinea Bislama Vanuatu Pijin Solomon Islands
Tok Pisin Superstrate language: English Substrate language: Austronesian and Papuan languages Creolisation In urban centers, the children of mixed couples learn Tok Pisin as their first language. Thus, Tok Pisin is changing from an extended pidgin to a creole language. Tok Pisin Vocabulary
The bulk of the vocabulary comes from English (i.e. the superstrate language). In addition, Tok Pisin includes words from various Austronesian and Papuan languages (e.g. Tolai, Malay). Finally, Tok Pisin includes some words of German origin (e.g. gumi, beten, raus) Tokgras Pisin Word Formation = gras/hair/fur mausgras
Pronouns em yu yutupela yutripela yupela he / she / it him / her / it you you two you three
you all SUBJ OBJ SG DUAL TRIAL PL Causative/transitive marker (1) Em i rit
He is reading. Em i ritim buk Hes reading a book. (2) Wara i boil pinis The water has boiled. Meri i boilim wara pinis The woman has boiled the water. (3)
Bai mi rait. Bai i raitim pas. make him boil him Ill write. Ill write a letter. > >
makim tellim Word Order (1) mi kukim rais. I cook rice I cooked the rice.
Complex Sentences (1) Mi no save. Ol I wokim dispela haus. I dont know (that) they work in this house. (2) Mi no save olsem ol i wokim dispela haus. I didnt know that they built this house. African American English
The origin of AAE 1. 2. Pidgin/creole Second language of a particular variety of English spoken in the South. The African Substratum Hypothesis Since the first slaves spoke a variety of African languages and since they had only little contact with their white masters, they
used a simplified version of English with elements of their native language as a lingua france. AAE developed from this early pidgin/creole language. African American English Until the beginning of the 20th century, 90% of all African American lived in the South, mainly in rural areas.
African American English Today, more than 60% of all African Americans live in the nonSouth, mainly in urban centers. LSA resolution The variety known as "Ebonics," "African American Vernacular English" (AAVE), and "Vernacular Black English" and by other names is systematic and rulegoverned like all natural speech varieties. In fact, all
human linguistic systems--spoken, signed, and written -- are fundamentally regular. Characterizations of Ebonics as "slang," "mutant," "lazy," "defective," "ungrammatical," or "broken English" are incorrect and demeaning. LSA resolution As affirmed in the LSA Statement of Language Rights (June l996), there are individual and group benefits to maintaining vernacular speech varieties and there are scientific and human advantages to linguistic diversity. For those living in the United
States there are also benefits in acquiring Standard English and resources should be made available to all who aspire the mastery of Standard English. The Oakland School Board's commitment to helping students master Standard English is commendable. Agreement - AAE (1) He need to get a book from the shelf. She want us to pass the papers to the front. Genitive - AAE
(1) The dog tail was wagging. The man hat was old. Copula deletion - AAE (1) That my bike. The coffee cold. He all right. Habitual be - AAE
(1) Do they be playing all day? Yeah, the boys do be messin around a lot. I see her when I be on my way to school. The coffee be cold. (2) a. b. (3)
*The coffee be cold right now. The coffee cold. The coffee be cold. Perfective done - AAE (1) She done did it. They done used all the good ones. They done go.
Negative inversion - AAE (1) (2) (3) (4) Cant nobody beatem. Dont nobody say nothin to dem peoples! Wasnt nobody in there but em an him. Aint no white cop gonna put his hands on me. Double negation - AAE
(2) I didnt have no lunch. He dont never go nowhere. PIDGIN/CREOLE GENESIS Lexical items are THEORIES easy to trace: one main lexifier language, with small sets of words from one or more other languages. Saramaccan:
~ 50% English = LL ~ 35% Portuguese ~ 15% Kikongo/Ewe/Fon/Twi Chinook Jargon: Lower Chinook language = LL Nootka Salishan languages French
PIDGIN/CREOLE GENESIS THEORIES All the controversy centers on the route(s) through which the languages' grammars emerged. PIDGIN/CREOLE GENESIS THEORIES MONOGENESIS HYPOTHESIS
In its strong form, this hypothesis states that all pidgins and Creoles are descen-dants of the original lingua franca of the Mediterranean, albeit with relexification - lexical replacement - for all pidgins and Creoles that do not have Italian lexicon, i.e. almost all known modern pidgins and Creoles. How does a pidgin language develop grammatical expressions? What drives the process of creolisation? The Bioprogram Hypothesis
The human species comes equipped with the capacity to reconstitute language itself should the normal generation-to-generation transmission of input data be inserted or distorted by extralinguistic forces. (Muysken & Bickerton 1988) Grammaticalization Source Target: AUX go (motion)
gonna will (intention) will have (possession) have Grammaticalization Source
Target: P during (verb) during in front of (PP) in front of a-gone (PRE-verb) ago
Grammaticalization Source Target: CONJ by cause (PP) because DEM while SUB while
given given Grammaticalization Source Target: PRO/ART some body (NP) somebody
one (numeral) the one one (numeral) a Grammaticalization Source Target: Bound
NOUN -ly NOUN -hood did -ed
Grammaticalization Grammaticalization is cross-linguistically so pervasive that some linguists suggested that all grammatical expressions are eventually derived from a lexical source. Grammaticalization Grammaticalization is of central signifiance for the theory of language: Challenges rigid division between lexicon and grammar. Challenges the assumption that grammatical
categories have clear-cut boundaries. Suggests that grammar is dynamic and emergent. Bibliography 1. Aitchinson, Jean. Language Change: Progress or Decay?. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 2. Romaine, Suzanne. Pidgin & Creole Languages. NY: Longman , INC., 1988. 3. Singh, Ishtla. Pidgins and Creoles: An Introduction. NY: Oxford University Press Inc., 2000. 4. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawaiian_Pidgin
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