Pigments in Forensic Geology - Faculty Server Contact

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Forensic Geology X-ray diffraction pattern for goethite

X-ray diffractometer (XRD) laboratory

Structure of minerals Minerals consist of an orderly array of

atoms chemically bonded to form a particular crystalline structure. Internal

atomic arrangement in ionic compounds is determined by ionic size.

Geometric packing of various ions Figure 3.8

Structure of Minerals Crystal Lattice: the three dimensional molecular

structure of a mineral. (Shape of the unit cell.) the various ions that make up the mineral.

Geometry + chemistry! Structure of Minerals Halite (rock salt)

Diagram illustrating Braggs law. = angle of incidence and diffraction when Braggs law conditions are met. d = inter-planar spacing.

Braggs Law = 2d(sind(sin) where:

= x-ray wavelength d = spacing between planes of atoms in crystal = x-ray incidence angle (Bragg angle)

also: d = /2d(sinsin sin = /2d(sind

XRD Laboratory

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