Pioneers in Classroom Management and Discipline From the 20th ...

Pioneers in Classroom Management and Discipline From the 20th ...

Pioneers in Classroom Management and Discipline From the 20th into the 21st Century Martin R. Hahm Grand Canyon University EDU530N December 18, 2009 Introduction Societal Changes after World War II From the authoritarian hickory stick and toe the mark (Charles, 2008, p. 54)

To the Evolution of Classroom Discipline with pioneers paving the way (p. 54). INTRODUCTION: The Entrance of Specialists in Human Behavior and Psychology inaugurated the modern era (p.55) Fritz Redl

and William Wattenberg Observed the power of Group dynamics (p.55) And how student roles emerge (p.55). Though concepts proved too cumbersome (p.56), Influence broke new ground. (p. 56). Burrhus Frederic Skinner Behavioral modification learned from lab animal research (p. 57-58) Reinforcement: constant, intermittent, successive approximation Considered by teachers as bribery toward desired

Jacob Kounin: Lesson Management to improve discipline WITHITNESS, (Charles, 2008, p. 58) an awareness to monitor and interact even while teaching, using tactics of Overlapping Lesson management Group alerting Student accountability Lesson momentum Smoothness Avoiding satiation Jacob Kounin: Disruptive

desist techniques With-it-ness means teacher has eyes in the back of his/her head (Keane, 1984, p. 1314). Errors are Target and timing mistakes Over-dwelling: Behavior, actone or prop, task. Fragmentation Stimulus boundedness Thrust Dangle Truncation Flip flop Kounins Contributions Workshops to facilitate strategies, develop expertise in

using tactics and to identify problems break new ground in evaluating teacher techniques and strategies for improving class management. These serve as patterns to continue self-evaluation in the process of class management. Major contribution is on preventing rather than handling misbehavior. Shows the connection between classroom behavior and student behavior cutting down on misbehavior, but not how to deal with it. (Charles, 2008, p.59-60) Haim Ginott: Discipline through Congruent Communication Teacher and child (Ginott, 1971)

Learning in present tense: No prejudging or grudges Student is unique, with feelings about self and situation Confer dignity as social equals, not belittle or denigrate Effective teacher: Invite cooperation, hidden asset I-messages VS you-messages Laconic language, short and to point Appreciative, not evaluative praise Avoid why questions, sarcasm, punishment (Charles, p.60-61) Ginotts contributions Not a quick fix for offensive or disruptive behavior (Charles, p.62) Humane treatment emphasized (Ginott, p.245) Examples in

Workshops To develop powerful and positive relationships Mark Boynton (Boynton & Boynton, 2005, p. 168) Humane solutions to assist dealing with disruptive situations and providing supportive intervention ( Rudolf Dreikurs: Discipline through Democratic Teaching A democratic classroom

(where) teacher and students work together to make decisions about how the class will function (Charles, 2008, p.63). Rudolf Dreikurs Theory Democratic classroom based on social interest neither autocratic nor permissive Genuine goal to instill a sense of belonging Mistaken goals to gain sense of belonging attention-seeking power seeking revenge seeking inadequacy

Logical consequences Lee & Marlene Canter: Discipline through Assertive Tactics The teachers right to teach; and the students right to learn. (Charles, 2008, p. 65). Three kinds of teachers

Hostileno nonsense, stern, students as adversaries Non-assertivepassive, wishy washy Assertivethe model of confidence and consistency Positive recognitionencouraging good behavior Corrective actionquickly and quietly Discipline hierarchywritten plan (Canter, 2006, p. 71) Transition to 21st Century Pioneers William Glasser: Choice Theory Meeting Basic Students Needs Survival Belonging

Power Fun Freedom Basic Needs Survival Power Fun Belongi ng

Freedo m William Glasser: Choice Theory The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory 1. The only person whose behavior we can control is our own. 2. All we can give another person is information. 3. All long-lasting psychological problems are relationship problems. 4. The problem relationship is always part of our present life. 5. What happened in the past has everything to do with what we are today, but we can only satisfy our basic needs right now and plan to continue satisfying them in the future.

William Glasser: Choice Theory The Ten Axioms of Choice Theory {last five} 6. We can only satisfy our needs by satisfying the pictures in our 7. 8. 9. 10. Quality World. All we do is behave. All behavior is Total Behavior and is made up of four components: acting, thinking, feeling and physiology.

All Total Behavior is chosen, but we only have direct control over the acting and thinking components. We can only control our feeling and physiology indirectly through how we choose to act and think. All Total Behavior is designated by verbs and named by the part that is the most recognizable. ( William Glasser: Choice Theory QUALITY TEACHING (Glasser, 1993, p.22ff) A warm, supportive classroom climate Lead teaching rather than boss teaching School work that is useful Encouragement for students to do the best they can Opportunity for students to evaluate work they have done and improve it.

SIRa process of self-evaluation, improvement, and repetition (Charles, 2008, p.75) Seven Deadly Habits Criticizing Blaming Complaining Nagging Threatening Punishing Rewarding Seven

Connecting Habits Caring Listening Supporting Contributing Encouraging Trusting Befriending ( DISCIPLINE THROUGH INNER SELF-CONTROL by Thomas Gordon

You acquire more influence with young people when you give up using your power to control them [and] the more you use power to control people, the less real influence youll have over their lives. (Charles, 2008, p.79) Use I-Messages instead of YouMessages 1. Influence VS 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. Control Preventative Skills Who owns problem? Confrontive Skills Helping Skills No-lose conflict resolution (p.80) HELPING

LISTENING SKILLS Passive listening Acknowledgement responses Door openers Active Listening SKILLS Communication Roadblocks Giving orders Warning Preaching Advising

Lecturing Criticizing Name calling Analyzing Praising Reassuring Questioning Withdrawing Conflict Resolution Gordon Training Internationala variety of methods for Teacher Effectiveness Training [T.E.T.] via their website: (

In conclusion Pioneers from the field of psychology researching human behavior apply findings to education. Approaches and strategies toward classroom management, discipline are still evolving Effective teachers today adopting and adapting to become expert teachers. References

1. Boynton, M., & Boynton, C. (2005). Educators guide to preventing and solving discipline problems. [elibrary Reader]. doi: %2ftitlereturn.aspx%3fpos%3d2& 2. Canter, L. (2006). Classroom management for academic success. [Adobe Digital Edition]. Retrieved December 18, 2009, from 3. Charles, C. M. (2008). Building classroom discipline (9th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education. 4. Ginott, H. (1971). Teacher and child. New York: Macmillan. 5. Glasser, W. (1993). The quality school teacher. New York: HarperPerennial. References, continued

6. Keane, B. R. (1984). The development of a classroom management workshop through an inservice training program. (ED253523). Retrieved December 18, 2009, from Grand Canyon University Library: direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED253523&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site 7. Krounin, J. (1971). Discipline and group management in classrooms (Reissued in 1977 ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 8. Marzano, R. J. (2004). Background knowledge for academic achievement: Research on what works in schools. [elibrary Reader]. doi: %2ftitlereturn.aspx%3fpos%3d1& 9. Roebuck, E. (2003, March, 2002). Beat the drum lightly: Reflections on Ginott.. Music Educators Journal, 88(5), 40-

44. doi: direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ672222&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

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