Planning and Designing Bicycle Facilities

Planning and Designing Bicycle Facilities

Bicycle Facility Design 1 Design Cyclist Novice

Children Varying levels of ability and judgment Speeds + lack of judgment Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

2 Design Cyclist Recreational or occasional user Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

3 Expert Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 4 Designing bicycle facilities: Policies and Standards

Federal/National: U.S. Access Board: Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines FHWA: Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

(MUTCD) AASHTO: Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities State and Local Manuals Example: Oregon DOT Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

5 Types of Bicycle Facilities 6 Paved Shoulders 7

Paved Shoulders any additional width is better than none If < 4 feet, cannot designate or mark as bicycle lane Minimum 4 feet width to be marked as bicycle facility Must be usable Bike Lane Design Guide and www.bicylinginfo.org

8 Paved Shoulders > = 5 feet with guardrail, curb, or other barrier Increase with higher bicycle usage or higher vehicle

Bike Lane Design Guide and www.bicylinginfo.org 9 Wide Lanes 10 Wide Vehicle Travel Lanes bicycle lane is best but wide travel

lane is better than nothing Allows motorist to safely pass cyclists while remaining in the same lane 14 feet recommended for outside lane measured from edge line or joint of gutter pan to lane line 11

Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 12 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 13 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

14 Wide Vehicle Travel Lanes 15 feet preferred when extra space to maneuver is required Steep slope On-street parking

Image source: King et al, 2002 15 Wide Vehicle Travel Lanes 15 feet preferred when extra space to maneuver is required

Steep slope On-street parking Avoid lanes that are too wide, vehicles treat as two lanes Consider creating separate bike lane

16 Bike Lanes 17 Bike Lanes Portion of roadway designated by

striping, signing, and pavement marking for preferential or exclusive use by bicyclists King et al, 2002 18

Bike Lanes 4 feet minimum with no curb and gutter 5 feet min. adjacent to parking, next to gutter, or guardrail 11 feet shared bike lane and parking area with no curb face 12 feet shared bike lane and parking area with curb face

19 King et al, 2002 20 King et al, 2002 21

Bike Lanes Lane stripe 6 inch solid white separates from vehicle lane 4 inch optional to separate from parking

spaces 22 Bike Lane Use only by bicyclists Bicyclists are expected to make left turn from left turn lane and not bike lane Why not sidewalks

Motorists are not looking for fast moving vehicles on sidewalk Have same rights as motorist Conflicts with pedestrian

??? Bike Lane Design Guide. 2002. 23 King et al, 2002 24

King et al, 2002 25 King et al, 2002 26 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

27 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 28 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 29

Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 30 Intersections 31 Intersections The recommended

designs are based on the assumption that: motorists making right turns

should make their turn from as close to the right-hand curb as practicable bicyclists going straight ahead should be to the left of right turning traffic bicyclists turning left should turn from a left turn lane or left side lane Bike lane design

guide, 2002 32 Bike lane at uncontrolled intersection: bike lane stripes should not be extended through a pedestrian crosswalk or any street intersection (with the exception of dashed lines through some complex intersections)

Bike lane at controlled intersection: bike lane stripe ends at stop line or crosswalk with right turning traffic bike lane dashed for final 50ft-200ft (15m-60m) with bus stop bike lane dashed for length of bus stop Bike lane at intersection w/right turn lane: see diagram (on p. 29 of the AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 3rd Edition )

www.bicylinginfo.org 33 Bike lane at intersection w/left turn lane: optional bike lane stripe to right of left turning vehicles Bike lane at modern roundabout: discontinue lane 35-65 feet

(10m-20m) prior to low speed roundabout Bike lane at multi-lane roundabout: discontinue lane prior to roundabout; consider separated bikeway, shared use of sidewalks, grade separation or re-routing (none are especially good options) Bike lane at high speed interchange: see diagram (on p. 63 of the AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 3rd E dition )

www.bicylinginfo.org 34 Bike lane design guide, 2002 35

Bike lane design guide, 2002 36 Bike lane design guide, 2002 37

Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 38 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 39 Other Barriers and Roadway Hazards Affecting Bicyclists

40 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 41 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 42

Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 43 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 44 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

45 Other Program and Facilities that Benefit Bicyclists 46 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

47 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 48 Shared Use Path Design (also termed Multi-Use Trails and Bike Paths)

Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 49 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation 50 Image source: FHWA Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

51 52 53 54 55

Pedestrian Facility Design Resources

Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities, A Recommended Practice, 1998. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 525 School Street, S.W, Suite 410, Washington, DC 20024-2729, Phone: (202) 554-8050. Pedestrian Compatible Roadways-Planning and Design Guidelines, 1995. Bicycle / Pedestrian Transportation Master Plan, Bicycle and Pedestrian Advocate, New Jersey Department of Transportation, 1035 Parkway Avenue, Trenton, NJ 08625, Phone: (609) 530-4578. Improving Pedestrian Access to Transit: An Advocacy Handbook, 1998. Federal Transit

Administration / WalkBoston. NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Planning and Implementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban and Developing Rural Areas, Report No. 294A, Transportation Research Board, Box 289, Washington, DC 20055, Phone: (202) 334-3214. Pedestrian Facilities Guidebook, 1997. Washington State Department of Transportation, Bicycle and Pedestrian Program, P.O. Box 47393, Olympia, WA 98504. Portland Pedestrian Design Guide, 1998. Portland Pedestrian Program, 1120 SW Fifth Ave, Room 802; Portland, OR 97210. (503) 823-7004. * Implementing Pedestrian Improvements at the Local Level, 1999. FHWA, HSR 20, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA .

* AASHTO Guide to the Development of Pedestrian Facilities, 2000. AASHTO. (currently under discussion) 56 Bicycle Facility Design Resources

Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 1999., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), P.O. Box 96716, Washington, DC, 200906716, Phone: (888) 227-4860. Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level, (1998), FHWA, HSR 20, 6300

Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA . Bicycle Facility Design Standards, 1998. City of Philadelphia Streets Department, 1401 JFK Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19103. Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicyclists, 1993. FHWA, R&T Report Center, 9701 Philadelphia Ct, Unit Q; Lanham, MD 20706. (301) 577-1421 (fax only) North Carolina Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design Guidelines, 1994. North Carolina DOT, P.O. Box 25201, Raleigh, NC 27611. (919) 733-2804. Bicycle Facility Planning, 1995. Pinsof & Musser. American Planning Association, Planning Advisory Service Report # 459. American Planning Association, 122 S. Michigan Ave, Suite 1600; Chicago, IL 60603.

Florida Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design Manual, 1994. Florida DOT, Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Office, 605 Suwannee Street, Tallahassee, FL 32399. Evaluation of Shared-use Facilities for Bicycles and Motor Vehicles, 1996. Florida DOT, Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Office, 605 Suwannee Street, Tallahassee, FL 32399. King, Michael, Andy Clarke, and Charles Zegeer. Bicycle Facility Selection. Highway Safety Research Center. UNCChapel Hill. Aug. 2002. 57 Bicycle and Pedestrian Design Resources

Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, 1995. Oregon Department of Transportation, Bicycle and Pedestrian Program, Room 210, Transportation Building, Salem, OR 97310, Phone: (503) 986-3555 Improving Conditions for Bicyclists and Pedestrians, A Best Practices Report, 1998. FHWA, HEP 10, 400 Seventh Street SW, Washington, DC 20590. Traffic Calming Design Resources Traffic Calming: State of the Practice. 1999. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 525 School Street, SW, Suite 410; Washington, DC 20024.

Florida Department of Transportation's Roundabout Guide. Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee St., MS-82, Tallahassee, FL 23299-0450. National Bicycling and Walking Study. Case Study # 19, Traffic Calming and Auto-Restricted Zones and other Traffic Management Techniques-Their Effects on Bicycling and Pedestrians, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Traffic Calming (1995), American Planning Association, 122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60603 Traditional Neighborhood Development Street Design Guidelines, 1997. Proposed Recommended Practice, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 525 School Street, SW, Suite 410; Washington, DC 20024.

Making Streets that Work, City of Seattle, 600 Fourth Ave., 12th Floor, Seattle, WA 98104-1873, Phone: (206) 684-4000, Fax: (206) 684-5360. Traffic Control Manual for In-Street Work, 1994. Seattle Engineering Department, City of Seattle, 600 4th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-6967, Phone: (206) 684-5108. 58 Trail Design Resources Trails for the 21st Century, 1993. Rails to Trails Conservancy, 1100

17th Street NW, 10th Floor, Washington DC 20036. (202) 331-9696. Greenways: A Guide to Planning, Design, and Development, 1993. The Conservation Fund. Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Ave NW, Suite 300; Washington, DC 20009. Trail Intersection Design Guidelines, 1996. Florida Department of Transportation, 605 Suwannee St., MS-82, Tallahassee, FL 232990450. 59 ADA-related Design Resources

Accessible Pedestrian Signals, 1998. U.S. Access Board 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1000; Washington, DC 20004. (800) 872-2253. Accessible Rights of Way: A Design Manual,1999. U.S. Access Board, 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1000; Washington, DC 20004. (800) 872-2253. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part One. 1999. FHWA, HEPH-30, 400 Seventh Street SW, Washington, DC 20590. ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities, 1998 (ADAAG). U.S. Access Board, 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1000; Washington, DC 20004. (800) 872-2253. Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards, 1984 (UFAS), available from the U.S.

Access Board, 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1000; Washington, DC 20004. (800) 872-2253 Universal Access to Outdoor Recreation: A Design Guide, 1993. PLAE, Inc, MIG Communications, 1802 Fifth Street, Berkeley, CA 94710. (510) 845-0953. Recommended Street Design Guidelines for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired. American Council of the Blind, 1155 15th Street NW, Suite 720; Washington, DC 20005. (202) 467-5081. 60

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