Planning for High Quality Early Childhood Programming for ...
Direct Teaching of Imitation Teaching Imitation If the child is attending to the environment, but does not imitate others naturally, you will need to use direct teaching of imitation. Teaching of Imitation using the 3 Rs
Adult: Shakes a maraca and says Do this Child: Does not respond or gives an incomplete response Adult: Physically assists child to shake the maraca and says This is shaking Embracing Play Teaching Imitation
When teaching imitation, it is often helpful to start with imitation with objects, especially toys Start with toys or movements that will come easily with minimal prompting Teaching of Imitation using the 3Rs: Have a goal in mind Adult: Pushes a toy bus and says Do this
Child: Does not respond or gives an incomplete response Adult: Physically assists child to push the bus and says This is pushing the bus Direct Teaching of Imitation What Does it Become? Continue to teach imitation skills such as: Put the boy in the bus
Drive the bus to the school Honk the horn on the bus (beep beep) Take the boy off the bus and go to school The targets are sequenced to become a meaningful play activity. The toys are made available in the classroom play area and visuals are provided along with adult support to implement the play sequence in another setting with other children.
Embracing Play Guidelines for Teaching Imitation Imitative play may occur on the floor or at a table depending on the child Have matched toy sets if possible to allow for immediate imitation Prompted Imitation using Modeling and
Verbal Prompts Observational Imitation Setting Up Observational Imitation Identical toy sets Model how to play with the toys slowly and systematically Use repetition early on
Limit number of toys initially Sit across from each other and limit space between Imitative play may occur on the floor or at a table depending on the child Observational Imitation in the Natural Environment
Circle Time Charades Child Child A Task Pulls picture from surprise box, imitates action depicted in picture
Child B Imitates Child A when prompted to Child C Point to picture and say do that Say do what (Child A) is doing
Answers questions about the actions What are they doing? Visual Supports and Video Modeling
Visual Supports First: Play with Friend Then: Swing Activity Schedule 16
Video Modeling Multiple studies have shown that video modeling is beneficial for teaching play skills (Fragale, 2014) Video modeling can be used to teach solitary play and social play Video Model Build with Blocks
Video model examples Dollhouse - Playing w/ Dollhouse (video Modeling) Car wash - Video Model: Toy Car Garage Tea time - Tea Pot Video Modeling Playing catch - Video Modeling Social Skills- Playing Catch Video Modeling: Guidelines for Implementing Shukla-Mehta, Miller & Callahan (2009)
1. May need to add prompts, reinforcers and error correction procedures 2. Consider video length based on students attending skills - children who are able to attend for 1-min are more likely to benefit 3. Keep the videos brief; more viewings are better than one time 4. All types of models seem to be effective
Individual Student Teaching Use ASK7 Social Engagement with Peers Peer Training and Supporting Social Engagement with Peers 22
Peer Support Options to Increase Peer Opportunities in Early Childhood Programs Reverse inclusion Coordinating with partner programs (Headstart, Great Start, Regular preschool) Sharing time with another program (e.g. morning
ASD class / afternoon regular preschool) How much support do you give? 25 Peer Training: Behavioral Skills Training (BST)
26 Peer Training Examples of Instruction Cards Used to Train Peers To get your friends attention, hand him a toy Play with the toys your friend is playing with When your friend talks, you say something too Get excited and tell your friend how he/she is doing
Ask your friend to show you what he/she is doing Ask for a turn or give a turn Ask your friend to make a choice How to be a Great Friend 28
Peer Training: Instruction Cards Used to Train Peers Which one do you want? Thats great! (Picture here)
(Picture here) Make a choice Get excited My turn Let me see
(Picture here) (Picture here) Take a turn Show me
Most Important Skills for Social Engagement and Interaction Initiation and Responding 30 Teaching Critical Social Skills Initiation
Responding Start practicing with trained peers when possible Give the peer highly desirable items to increase the motivation of the target child to initiate Start practicing with trained peers
when possible Start with desirable situations that involve a peer offering a preferred item or asking an easy to answer question Teach the target child to respond to various initiations such as their name, hey, or a tap on the arm
Teach the target child an initiation behavior (e.g., arm tap, give a picture, appropriate words such as hey, can I play or my turn) Provide a sentence strip or script for asking questions Give the child a way to respond either through an AAC device,
pictures, verbal language, yes/no Use prompting and practice to make Use prompting and practice to make sure the target child gains fluency sure the target child gains fluency and then fade prompts and then fade prompts 31 How can peers help to teach
reciprocal conversations? 32 Peer Support to learn Reciprocal Conversation Reciprocal Conversations Play Strips
Peer Training and Support Joint Attention Joint Attention 36 Joint Attention
Socialcommunicative communicative behavior in which two people share attentional focus on an object or event, for the sole purpose of sharing that interesting object with each other (Bakeman & Adamson)
Critical for social development, language acquisition, & cognitive development Joint Attention in a Typically Developing Child
Joint Attention in a Child with ASD Development of Joint Attention Joint Attention is observed in typically developing children by 3-9 months of age and is well established by 18 months.
The ability to coordinate attention with a social partner is a major milestone of infancy that is critical to active participation in social learning opportunities and language development. (White et al., 2011; Mundy & Willoughby, 1998)
Types of Joint Attention Responding to joint attention Ability to follow direction of gaze or point Initiating joint attention Ability to use direction of gaze or point to direct the attention of others (Seibert et al., 1982) Types of Joint Attention:
Social and Non-Social Child points to something he wants and shifts gaze to the parent and then back to what he wants. Some children with ASD can do this. (non-social) Child points to something because he wants to show it to someone else
(social). This is more difficult for children with ASD. Difference is intention Social Responsiveness: Steps for Teaching Joint Attention Point to an item such as a toy hanging from the ceiling, a flashing light, or a jack in the box and say look!
Use an exaggerated gesture (e.g., point from the participants eyes toward the item) to prompt the child to orient toward the item After the child looks at the item, model a comment or gesture for the child to imitate (e.g., wow, silly, uh-oh, hand over mouth) Provide a gestural prompt for the child to look back at you Then provide social reinforcement (e.g., smiles, tickles) (Taylor & Hoch, 2008)
How are you teaching joint attention? Strategies to Teach Activity interspersed with high interest, novel toys Most to least prompting with fading (time delay or graduated guidance) Natural reinforcement (tangible if needed)
Gaining access to item Social engagement Teach Look Toy and Eye Gaze Looking at Items Get on the childs level Use exaggerated expressions or movements Touch what you are talking about at first before
pointing to items far away Use the word look and then point to show objects of interest Show a car or ball and then push it away. Point and say look. Teach Look Toy and Eye Gaze Eye Gaze
Hold preferred items near your face Put something unusual on your face, like a sticker, or put on a hat or something silly Have the child lay on the floor and look at the child with an interesting item on or near your face/head Play the flashlight game. Turn off the lights and shine the light on objects (unless this makes the child nervous)
Teaching Joint Attention: Fun Routines When unexpected or surprising events occur during the course of the day (e.g., the doorbell ringing, a jack
inthe box popping up, a music box stopping, a block tower falling over), look at your child, make an exaggerated look of surprise (e.g., raise your eyebrows, smile and open your mouth wide, make a gasping sound, cover your mouth with your hand), and say enthusiastically, Wow! or Uhoh! You can also set up play activities so that a surprise event occurs periodically and turn this activity into a game. Toys with unexpected sounds or actions work
well. Teaching Joint Attention: Follow Point/Gaze
Hide objects the child wants and teach him/her to follow your point, head turn, and eye gaze to find them. Gather the childs favorite toys (e.g., puzzle pieces, balls to put down a chute, trains to go on a track) and place them in different parts of the room. When starting, the objects should be close to the child and at least partially visible.
Start the activity and make it clear the objects are missing. When the child needs the item, shrug your shoulders and say, Hmm, where is it? Then point to the object and say, There it is! When your child is able to find the objects consistently, try turning your head in the direction of the object instead of pointing to it. Eventually you can try just shifting your eyes to indicate the general direction of the object. Be sure to use
Joint Attention Situations that are unusual, but not anxiety producing will elicit surprise and looking more than routine situations These situations can also increase communication Joint Attention
Play Wrap-Up 1. Structure play for students who need support a) Provide adult and peer support b) Use CLAMS cards 2. Teach dramatic play 3. Teach games 4. Assess and teach play skills a)
b) c) d) e) 3Rs Reciprocal Imitation Observational Imitation Visual Supports
Video Modeling 5. Train peers 6. Teach joint attention Whats next? Next training: Implementing High Quality Early Childhood Programming (April 12th) Work on action items
Collect follow up data for independence and classroom engagement and summarize on the pink Target Student Reporting form before April 12th Target Student Reporting Form Pink
Form in Team Binder Target Student Reporting Form continued Target Student Reporting Form
continued Go over your action plan with us and get something for your classroom Share your Action Plan with us and Get a Resource for Your Classroom Next Steps
Next meeting date Module 6: Implementing High Quality Preschool Programming Collect follow up data for independence and engagement and summarize on the pink Target Student Reporting form for the final training date Please complete an evaluation form
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