Plant & Animal Adaptations BIOLOGY EOCT REVIEW Adaptations in Plants Adaptation: any structure or behavior that increases an organisms chance of survival or reproduction Stimulus: anything in an organisms internal or external environment that causes the organism to react. Includes light, temperature, movement, pressure, chemicals, gravity, and sound
Tropism: a plants growth in a certain direction in response to a stimulus. Toward stimulus: positive Away from stimulus: negative Plant Tropisms Plant Hormones Hormone: a chemical
messenger that is produced in one part of an organism and affects activities in another part of the organism Structural Adaptations in Plants These adaptations of plants can be seen in their leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and seeds. They help plants survive adverse
environmental conditions. Examples: Deciduous trees have broad, flat leaves that are well suited for capturing sunlight
Dormancy in winter to conserve water Conifers have flexible branches that prevent them from breaking under the weight of snow Pollen carried by the wind Functional Adaptations of Plants Functional adaptations are related to the way an organisms body works Chemical defenses
are also a functional adaptations to protect from predators Example: Poison ivy, poison oak Physical Adaptations of Animals Camouflage: coloring or patterns that enable an organisms to blend in with its surroundings
Countershading Cryptic coloration Disruptive Coloration Physical Adaptations of Animals Mimicry: an organisms resemblance to an object in its surrounding or to another organism Walking Stick
Wasp (stings) vs Hoverfly (harmless) Behavior in Animals Innate behavior: a behavior that an animal does not need to learn through experience Reflex: an involuntary response to a stimulus (ex: pulling your hand away when you touch something hot) Instinct: a more complicated innate behavior (ex: bird building a nest, courtship rituals); animals
have control over these behaviors Territorial behavior is an innate Behavior Migration: the instinctive seasonal movement of a species Hibernation: spending the winter in an inactive or dormant state
Estivation: a reduction in an animals rate of metabolism in response to extreme Learned Behavior Learned behaviors develop during an animals lifetime as a result of experience Help animals survive by responding to a changing
environment Many require practice Habituation: animal learns to ignore a repeated stimulus that does not harm the animal Imprinting: the response of some animals to a stimulus that they are exposed to shortly after birth
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