Plant Growth, Reproduction, and Response

Plant Growth, Reproduction, and Response

Plant Reproduction, and Response Unit 10 1 2 Plant Life Cycle Plant life cycles alternate between

producing spores and gametes. The plant life cycle in which the plant alternates between haploid (1n) and diploid (2n) phases is called alternation of generations. 3 Plant Life Cycle The diploid phase of a plant life cycle begins with a fertilized egg, called a zygote.

A zygote divides by mitosis and grows into a mature sporophyte, or spore-producing plant. A spore makes the beginning of the haploid phase of the plant life cycle. A spore divides by mitosis and grows into a mature gametophyte, or gamete-producing plant. 4 Plant Life Cycle

5 Plant Life Cycle 6 Plant Life Cycle A haploid set of chromosomes, and hence a single set of genes, is sufficient to control cell function in these organisms (but not in most animals).

The gametophyte generation is the major stage in the life of mosses and an independent plant in ferns. 7 Life Cycle of Nonvascular Plants: Moss gametophyte phase is dominant sporophytes are stalk-like structures that grow up from the gametophyte

capsule at tip of moss sporophyte contains spore-producing sacs called sporangia when mature, capsule opens spores released 8 Life Cycle of Nonvascular Plants: Moss moss

gametophyte produces gametes male: sperm (many) female: egg (1) sperm swim toward egg if water is present fertilization after fertilization, sporophyte phase begins once again

9 Life Cycle of Nonvascular Plants: Moss 10 Life Cycle of Seedless Vascular Plants: Ferns sporophyte is dominant phase (for all vascular plants)

underside of a fern leaf (frond) sori clusters of sporangia (spore-producing sacs) spores released when mature can develop into a gametophyte if conditions are favorable for growing 11

Life Cycle of Seedless Vascular Plants: Ferns prothallus: fern gametophyte (about the size of your little fingernail anchors to soil with tiny threadlike structures called rhizoids contains special reproductive

structures that produce sperm and eggs 12 Life Cycle of Seedless Vascular Plants: Ferns If

freestanding water is present, male structures release sperm sperm swim egg fertilization zygote forms on the prothallus beginning of sporophyte generation Zygote grows above prothallus mature sporophyte fiddleheads: newly forming fronds 13

Life Cycle of Seedless Vascular Plants: Ferns 14 Life Cycle of Seed Plants: Conifers sporophyte: familiar form (for all seed plants)

seed plants produce two types of spores that develop male and female gametophytes gametophytes of seed plants are microscopic 15 Life Cycle of Seed Plants: Conifers Example:

pine tree branches have two different types of cones (male & female) female cones larger and more scaly; live and grow for several years each scale of a female pinecone: 2 ovules that produce spores 1 spore/ovule gametophyte

male cones live only for a few weeks male spores pollen grains (male gametophyte) 16 Life Cycle of Seed Plants: Conifers male cones release clouds of pollen in the spring pollen grain lands on a female cone, sticks pollination: pollen grain reaches opening of

ovule. eggs are produced inside the ovule pollen tube begins to grow from pollen grain egg In pine species, it takes a year for pollen tube to reach egg

17 Life Cycle of Seed Plants: Conifers 2 sperm develop inside pollen grain travel down pollen tube toward egg

ovule protective pine seed no flagella (dont need to swim through water to reach egg) 1 sperm may fertilize an egg zygote embryo each scale: 2 developing pine seeds when seeds mature, scales open up and release

them life cycle starts over w/new sporophyte (pine tree seedling) 18 Life Cycle of Seed Plants: Conifers 19 All plants alternate between

two phases in their life cycles Plant life cycles alternate between producing spores and gametes. Life cycle phases look different among various plant groups. Reproduction in Flowering

Plants 20 21 Reproduction in Flowering Plants Flowers contain reproductive organs protected by specialized leaves.

The outermost layer of a flower is made up of sepals modified leaves that protect the developing flower. The layer inside the sepals is made up of petals, which are modified leaves. protect reproductive structures attract pollinators

22 Reproduction in Flowering Plants 23 Reproduction in Flowering Plants Some species have flowers with

only male or only female structures, but the flowers of most species have BOTH. 24 Reproduction in Flowering Plants male part of a flower: stamen filament

supports anther, which produces pollen grains (male gametophytes) female (inner) part of a flower: carpel several carpals fused together form pistil female gametophytes are produced inside the ovary (at base of flower)

25 Reproduction in Flowering Plants 26 Reproduction in Flowering Plants Pollination wind or animals (more

reliable) Insects, birds, and animals that visit flowers collect pollen as a food source. When the animal searches for food in another flower, pollen from the first flower brushes against the stigma of another flower. 27

Reproduction in Flowering Plants 28 Reproduction in Flowering Plants 29 Reproduction in Flowering Plants Fertilization

takes place within the flower. Anthers produce pollen grains (male gametophyte) Cells w/in anthers divide by meiosis 4 spores Spores divide by mitosis 2 haploid cells

Along with protective these 2 cells form a pollen grain 30 Reproduction in Flowering Plants Fertilization takes place within the flower. One

cell in ovule divides by meiosis to form 4 spores (3 usually die) Remaining spore divides 3 times to form embryo sac (female gametophyte) One large, central cell has 2 haploid polar nuclei One of the other cells develops egg 31 Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Double Fertilization After pollination, one cell in pollen grain grows into a pollen tube Extends down style ovule

Other cell in pollen grain divides by mitosis 2 sperm Both travel down pollen tube One sperm fertilizes egg Other sperm combines w/polar nuclei in embryo sac 32 Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Double Fertilization The sperm cell that does NOT fertilize the egg has a triploid (3n) nucleus and becomes the endosperm, a food supply for the developing plant embryo. Only happens in flowering plants!

33 Reproduction in Flowering Plants 34 Reproduction in Flowering Plants Animation Double Fertilization 35

Flowering Plants Life Cycle A tomato plant is a typical flowering plant. If the flower is pollinated and fertilization occurs, ovules will develop into seeds and the surrounding ovary will develop into a fruit. 36 Flowering Plants Life Cycle 37

Flowering Plants Life Cycle 38 Flowering Plants Life Cycle 39 Flowering Plants Life Cycle 40

Seeds and Fruit At fertilization, ovule becomes a seed embryo nutritious endosperm protective seed coat 41

Seeds and Fruit Using nutrients provided by endosperm, embryo develops 1-2 cotyledons, which sometimes provide nourishment for the new plant before it can begin producing its own food through photosynthesis 42 Seeds and Fruit

While the seed develops, the surrounding ovary grows into a fruit. Flowering plants that produce many seeds w/in 1 ovary larger fruit 43 Seeds and Fruit After a pumpkin flower (left) is pollinated and fertilization occurs, seeds and fruit begin to develop. The pumpkin fruit (center) is green

at first, containing immature seeds. The ripe fruit (right) is orange and contains mature pumpkin seeds. Seed Dispersal and Germination 44 Animals, mechanical force, wind, and water can spread seeds. Recall

that when a seed develops, the surrounding ovary grows into a fruit. Animals eat the fruit, and use their waste as fertilizer (with the undigested seed inside), to make new seed plants. Some seed coats pop open and throw their seeds away from the plant. Seeds blow in the wind by special wings. Some seeds float for miles or days to a landing. Seed Dispersal and Germination

45 Seed Dispersal and Germination 46 Seeds begin to grow when environmental conditions are favorable. When a seed is dormant, or under dormancy,

the embryo stops growing. This happens if the temperature, moisture, oxygen, and/or light levels are not favorable to the seed. Seed Dispersal and Germination 47 Many types of seeds begin to grow when

there are certain changes in temperature, moisture, or light levels. During germination, the embryo breaks out of the seed coat and begins to grow into a seedling. Embryo takes up water Water causes the seed to swell and crack Embryonic root breaks through the crack as it grows Young plant is free of seed coats and grows!

48 49 Asexual Reproduction Plants can that can grow a new individual from a fragment of a stem, leaf, or root are reproducing by regeneration. Most plants have a way of cloning

themselves through asexual reproduction. Runners Suckers 50 Asexual Reproduction Humans

can produce plants with desirable traits using vegetative structures. Example: seedless fruit 51 Plant Hormones and Responses Plant hormones regulate plant functions.

A hormone is a chemical messenger produced in one part of an organism that stimulates or suppresses the activity of cells in another part. In humans, hormones control functions vital to survival and reproduction. In plants, when a hormone meets the right receptor, it triggers a response.

52 Plant Hormones and Responses 53 Plant Hormones and Responses Types of plant hormones and their functions: Gibberellins

produce increase in size in plants Ethylene causes ripening in fruits Gas which envelopes fruit One bad apple spoils the whole barrel 54

Plant Hormones and Responses Cytokinins stimulate cytokinesis, the final stage of cell division Auxins lengthening of plant cells growth of plants,

- rooting hormone 55 Plant Hormones and Responses Phototrophism tendency of plant to grow towards light (light) 56

Plant Hormones and Responses Thigmotrophism to touch (touch) plants response 57 Plant Hormones and Responses Gravitrophism up-and-down growth

of plant due to Earths gravitational pull (gravity) 58 Plant Hormones and Responses Photoperiodism plants response to changing of days and night throughout the year (season changes) 59

Plant Hormones and Responses

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