Plate Tectonics and Layers of the Earth - Moore Public Schools
Plate Tectonics and Layers of the Earth Mr. Ks 8th Grade Science Class 2009-2010 Introduction Plate ______________________________ is a relatively new theory thatTectonics has revolutionized the way geologists think about the _____________. Earth According to the theory, the ________________ of thesurface Earth is broken plates and into large _________________. The ____________ size ___________________ of theseposition
plates change over time ____________. The _____________ of these plates, edges where they move _________________ each other, against are sites of intense geologic activity, such as earthquakand __________________, ____________________, volcanoe building. mountai ___________________ es s n
Plate tectonics is a combination of two earlier ideas,continental ______________________________ and _____________________________________. sea-floordrift spreading Continental drift is the movement of _____________________ over the Earths continents surface and their change in position __________________ relative to each other. Sea-floor spreading is the creation of new oceanic crust at mid ocean ridges ______________________________ and movement ofaway the crust ____________ from the mid-ocean ridges.
Layers of the Earth: The Core three The Earth is divided into ________ cor the ____________, mantle the chemical layers: ________________ crust e and the ______________. The coreiron is composednickel of mostly ___________ and ____________ and remains very hot, even after 4.5 billion years ofinner cooling. The core is divided intoouter
two layers: a solid _______________ core and a liquid _______________ core. Inner Core 3,200 3,960 The inner core is _________________________ (5,150-6,370 km) below miles the earth's surface and mainly consists of iron, nickel, and some ________________ elements (probably lighter ______________, sulfur ______________, carbon oxygen silicon potassium _______________,
______________ and __________________). The temperature in the inner9032 core is- 10832 about __________________________ (5000-6000FC). Because of the high pressure __________________, the core is ___________. solid Outer Core The outer core is at _________________________(2,890-5,150 km) 1,800-3,200 below the earth's surface. The outer core is
miles _____________ and mainly consists of iron, liquid some nickel and about 10% ___________ and sulfur ______________. The temperature in the oxygen outer core is about 7200 - 9032 ____________________________ (4000-5000C). The outer core and innerF core together magnetism cause the earth's __________________. Upper Mantle
Lower Mantle The Mantle middle part of the Earth, the mantle, is The ______________ composed of two layers also, the ______________ mantleupper and the _____________ mantle.lower The mantle solid is _____________ and _____________________. This is plastic-like because of the _______________ points of the melting different layers and the increase in ___________________ and
_______________ as one temperatu moves _____________ into the As the upper pressure deeper re Earth. mantle is both _________ and under relatively hot _____________ pressure, thelittle rock in the upper mantle has a relatively low __________________, whichviscosity means it is relatively fluid. In contrast, the lower mantle is under ___________________ pressure and therefore has a _____________ viscosity than very high the higher
upper mantle. The Crust There are two types of crust. The first is called oceanic _____________________ crust and is made of basalt relatively dense rock called __________________. continental The second is _________________________ crust and is made of lower density rocks, such as andesite granite ___________________ and ___________________. Both continental and oceanic crust ______________ on float
mantle the ________________. Because the continental thickboth above crust is __________________,very it extends and below the oceanic crust, much like a large iceberg floating next to smaller one. Evidence of Continental Drift When you look at amap ___________ of Earths surface, one thing is very obvious. You can edges notice that the ______________ continentsof some
_______________________ puzzle look as if they would fit together like a 1800s _________________. In the early ________________, as accurate maps of Earths surface were first being developed, other people also noticed this fact. Pangaea Alfred Wegener ____________________________ thought that the _________ wasnt just fit of the ______________________ continents a coincidence. He believed that all the continents
joined at some point in the were ______________ together 1912 past, and in a ____________ lecture, he proposed the idea of continental drift. Wegener believed that all continents were once connected as ________ large landmass one that broke apart about 200ago. When the ___________________ years continents broke apart, they ________________ to million their drifted present positions. He called this large Pangae landmass __________________, which means all land.
a Fossil Clues Besides the puzzle-like fit of the continents, fossils other clues were found from ____________. Mesosauru Fossils of the reptile ___________________ have South been found in ___________________________ and s AfricaAmerica _________________. This swimming reptile lived fresh water land
in _____________________ and on ____________. But how could fossils of the Mesosaurus have been found so far apart? Its very unlikely that continents it could have swum between ________________. both Wegener thought this reptile lived on ________ continents when the continents were connecte ___________________. d Climate Clues plants were found Fossils of warm-weather ______________ on the island of ______________________ Spitzbergen in the Arctic Ocean. Wegener believed that Spitzbergen drifted
from the _____________ tropic regions. He also used glacial clues to support his theory. Glacial ________________ deposit ______________ and grooved ________________ found in bedrock southern areassof _________________________, South _______________,Africa ________________, and India Australia _____________________ that these continents America indicated were once covered with __________________. glaciers
Wegener thought that these continents were all connected __________________ and covered with _________ near ice Earths _______________________ at one time. South Rock Clues If the continents were connected at one time, then ___________ rocks that make up the continents should be the _____________. same Similar rock _________________ are structures found on different continents. Parts of the Appalachian ____________________ Mountains
of the eastern United States are similar to those found in ___________________ and Greenla western _______________. If you Europe were to travel to nd ___________________________and western South Africa _______________, you would find rock structures that America are very similar. These clues, found in rocks, support the idea that the continents were connected when these rock structures formed. Plate Tectonics 1960s explained
The new hypothesis of the early _____________ several puzzling sets of observations. All that remained was a _________________ synthesis of these hypotheses. The synthesis began in 1965 when ____________________ introduced the Tuzo Wilson term ____________ for the plate broken pieces of the Earths lithosphere. In 1967, ______________________ James proposed Morgan that the Earths surface consists of __________________________ 12 rigid plates that move relative to each other. Two months later, _____________________________ published a synthesis
showing Xavier Le the ____________________ and _____________ of plate location Pichon boundaries and their ___________________ of movement. type Since direction the mid 1960s, the plate tectonic model has been rigorously tested. Because the model has been _________________ tested by numerous methods, it is now successfull called the plate tectonic ___________ and y is accepted by almost all geologists.
theory Earthquak ______________________ and ____________________, volcanoes evidence of unrest in the Earth, help locate the es edges ____________ of plates. Earthquakes are narrow belts distributed in _____________, ______________ that linear circle the Earth. Some of these belts have shallow only ______________ (0-20 miles) earthquakes, like the ______________________ and east
Mid-Atlantic Pacific _______________ ridges. In contrast, earthquakes in other belts, like _______________ South western America and ________________________ Asia, are south at shallow, ____________________ (20-45 miles), intermedia central (45-450 miles) levels. and _____________ deepte Volcanoes ___________________ are also distributed in long ___________ belts that circle the Earth. A dramatic example is the line of
volcanoes that circle Pacific most of the _______________ Ocean. Ring This of belt Fireis known as the _________________________ because it is the site of frequent volcanic eruptions. Ring of Fire earthquakes and The distribution of ___________________ _____________________ coincides at most locations. volcanoes
The _________________________ an excellent Ring ofisFire example. Geologists believe that areas of intense geologic activity, indicated by _________________ earthquakes, volcanoes, and/or ______________________________, mountain building mark the boundaries between ______________________ plates. lithospheri The distribution of earthquakes,cvolcanoes, and mountain ranges define _____________ plates and 7 large 20 smaller __________________ plates. Plate Boundaries
The ways that plates interact depend on their relative _______________ and whether motion ___________________ or continenta oceanic ______________________ crust is at the edge l of the lithospheric plate. away from Plates move _____________________, _______________, or toward slide past
________________________ each other. Geologists call theseconvergen __________________, divergent ___________________, and t transform ___________________ plate boundaries. Plate Boundary Types Divergent Plate Boundaries Divergent plate boundaries are locations where plates are moving _____________________ away from one another. This occurs above rising convection currents. The rising current ____________________ pushes up
______________________ on the bottom of the lifting lithosphere, _________________ it and flowing laterally beneath it. This lateral flow causes the plate material above to be _________________ dragged along in the direction of flow. At the crest of the uplift, the overlying plate is stretched _____________, thin breaks and _________________________. pulls apart Mid-Atlanic The ________________________ Ridge is a classic
example of this type of plate boundary. The Ridge is a ____________ area compared to the high seafloor surrounding __________________ because of the lift convectiocurrent below. from the ___________________ n (A frequent misconception is that the Ridge is a build-up of __________________ volcanic materials, however, the ____________magma that fills the depression does not flood extensively over the ___________ floor and ocean stack up to form a topographic high. Instead, it
fills ____________ the depression and solidifies. MidAtlantic Ridge Hot Spots Geologists believe that some areas in the mantle hotter are _______________ than other areas. These hotter places in the mantle form areas called hot spots melt ____________________. The hot spots ___________ upward rock, which is then forced _________________ magm toward the crust as _______________.
The Hawaiian _____________________ Islands a sit on top of a hot Pacific spot under the ____________________ Plate. Magma from deep in Earths mantle has _______________ melted through the crust to form several volcanic ____________________________. islands Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands are also all in a ___________. Thisline is because the _________________ Plate is
moving over the ____________________ hot spot. Pacific The island of Kauai is the _______________ stationary oldest Hawaiian island and was located where the big island of Hawaii is today. As the plate moves _____________, Kauai moved ____________________ away the hot spot and became ________________. Continued movement dorma from of the Pacific Plate has formed ______________,
__________________, nt Oahu and _________________ Molokai ____________, overMaui a period Hawaii of about ___________________________. 5 million years Convergent Plate Boundaries Convergent plate boundaries are locations where lithospheric plates are moving toward____________ one another. The plate collisions that occur in these areas
canearthquak produce ___________________, volcanic __________________ crustal es activity and ______________ deformation. Subduction When continental and oceanic plates _____________ the collide thinner and denser __________________ plate is overridden by the thicker and less dense oceanic ______________________ plate.continental The oceanic plate is down forced ___________ into the _______________
in a mantle process known as ___________________. As the oceanic plate descends it is forced into subduction ____________ temperature environments. At a higher depth of about _________________ materials in the 100 miles subducting plate begin to approach their _______________ temperatures and amelting process of partial melting begins. Examples of Convergent Plate
Boundaries Appalachia n Mountains Andes Mountain Himalaya n Mountain Transform Plate Boundaries We have learned that crust isformed _____________ at a divergent boundary and folded ________________ destroyed or ____________________ at a convergent boundary. However, at a
transform _________________ boundary, crust is neither formed nor destroyed. Here, two plates slide past ______________________ each other in opposite __________________ directions. As the plates scrape move, their edges ______________ and grind ___________ against each other. Transform Plate Boundaries slide away from each other Transform Plate Boundaries slide away from each other
Transform boundaries occur mostly on the sea floor ___________________ near mid-ocean ridges. land They also occur on ___________, where some cracks are clearly visible as long ______________ in the San Andreas Earths surface. The _____________________ California Fault in _____________________ is a transform boundary that runs from the Gulf of California San Francisco through the __________________________ area. It Pacific marks where the _________________
Plate and North part of the ____________________________ Plate American are moving in opposite directions. San Andreas Earthquakes
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